of oil-degrading communities remains to be resolved. Here we have demonstrated that hydrocarbon degradation in deep-sea microbial communities is lower at native HP (10 MPa, about 1000m below sea surface level) than at ambient pressure. In longterm enrichments, increased HP selectively inhibited obligate hydrocarbon-degraders and downregulated the expression of betaoxidation-related proteins (i.e., the main hydrocarbon-degradation pathway) resulting in low cell growth and CO2 production. Short-term experiments with HP-adapted synthetic communities confirmed this data, revealing a HP-dependent accumulation of citrate and dihydroxyacetone. Citrate accumulation suggests rates of aerobic oxidation of fatty acids in the TCA cycle were reduced. Dihydroxyacetone is connected to citrate through glycerol metabolism and glycolysis, both upregulated with increased HP. High degradation rates by obligate hydrocarbon-degraders may thus be unfavourable at increased HP, explaining their selective suppression. Through lab-scale cultivation, the present study is the first to highlight a link between impaired cell
metabolism and microbial community assembly in hydrocarbon degradation at high HP. Overall, this data indicate that hydrocarbons fate differs substantially in surface waters as compared to deep-sea environments, with in situ low temperature and limited nutrients availability expected to further prolong hydrocarbons persistence at deep sea.