Recycled Red Mud–Decorated Porous 3D Graphene for High‐Energy Flexible Micro‐Supercapacitor

Gourav Bhattacharya, Sam Fishlock, Anurag Pritam, Susanta S Roy, James McLaughlin

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33 Citations (Scopus)
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Flexible micro‐supercapacitors, with high energy and power density, and using materials with a low environmental impact are attractive for next‐generation energy storage devices. Carbon‐based materials are widely used for supercapacitors but can be increased in energy density via combination with metal oxides. Red mud is an iron‐oxide‐rich by‐product of aluminum production, which needs to be more widely utilized to reduce its environmental damage. To achieve a flexible micro‐supercapacitor device with increased energy density, a laser‐induced graphene (LIG) supercapacitor is realized from a polyimide substrate, decorated with red‐mud nanoparticles (LIG‐RM), employing a solid‐state ionic liquid electrolyte with a mixture of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), 1‐ethyl‐3‐methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMI][TFSI]), and 1‐ethyl‐3‐methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]). The fabricated two‐electrode flexible device, in an interdigitated planar design, with inkjet‐printed silver current collectors, has a high energy of 0.018 mWh cm−2 at a power of 0.66 mW cm−2, with 81% of capacitance retained after 4000 cycles and good resistance to bending and flexing. The high energy storage performance, brought about through the combination of graphene and red‐mud nanoparticles, which would—if not utilized—be an environmental liability, shows a promise as a material for future energy storage with low environmental impact.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1900133
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalAdvanced Sustainable Systems
Issue number4
Early online date2 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 1 Apr 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
G.B. and S.J.F. contributed equally to this work. G.B. acknowledges the Commonwealth Split-Site Scholarship, from the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in the UK. G.B., S.J.F., and J.A.M. are grateful for funding under the Biodevices Laboratory from Invest NI. A.P. is indebted to Shiv Nadar University for providing Ph.D. scholarships. A.P. acknowledges Shiv Nadar University for Ph.D. funding. All the authors thank National Aluminium Company Ltd. for supplying the red-mud samples.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • flexible supercapacitors
  • recycled nanomaterials
  • red mud
  • waste management
  • waste to wealth


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