Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts.

Alan McCully, C Psaltis, A Agbaria, C Makriyianni, F Pingel, H Karahasan, M Carretero, M Oguz, R Choplarou, S Philippou, W Wagner, Y Papadakis

    Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

    Abstract

    The way recent and old intergroup conflicts are presented around the world in curricula, textbooks, civil society and social representations can be characterised by four main approaches. In the first approach, a moratorium is imposed and any reference to the conflictual past is avoided; the second is a selective approach where nation-states or groups keep silent about aspects that involve wrongdoing of one’s own group, here called “ingroup”, and offer either a positive presentation of the “ingroup” or a preservation of the memory of the conflict by reiterating master narratives of one-sided victimisation of the “ingroup”. Both of these approaches are highly problematic as they become an obstacle to conflict transformation by peaceful means and the cultivation of historical thinking. A third approach attempts to overcome conflict by a simplistic understanding of a single peaceful narrative of co-existence, which often follows outdated and unhistorical conceptions of essentialist identities as a tool for nation- building. Finally, there is the interdisciplinary approach of transformative history teaching, which attempts a critical understanding of the conflictual past through the cultivation of historical thinking, empathy, an overcoming of ethnocentric narratives and the promotion of multiperspectivity. The transformative history teaching approach is the basis on which we situate the present recommendations.
    LanguageEnglish
    Number of pages16
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Jun 2017

    Fingerprint

    Teaching
    history
    narrative
    state formation
    coexistence
    empathy
    victimization
    nation state
    textbook
    civil society
    promotion
    Group
    curriculum
    present

    Keywords

    • History Education Social Psychology Controversial Issues Inter-group conflict

    Cite this

    McCully, A., Psaltis, C., Agbaria, A., Makriyianni, C., Pingel, F., Karahasan, H., ... Papadakis, Y. (2017). Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts.
    McCully, Alan ; Psaltis, C ; Agbaria, A ; Makriyianni, C ; Pingel, F ; Karahasan, H ; Carretero, M ; Oguz, M ; Choplarou, R ; Philippou, S ; Wagner, W ; Papadakis, Y. / Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts. 2017. 16 p.
    @book{1b64c1b3f6d04ab0a23f36fd21d7176e,
    title = "Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts.",
    abstract = "The way recent and old intergroup conflicts are presented around the world in curricula, textbooks, civil society and social representations can be characterised by four main approaches. In the first approach, a moratorium is imposed and any reference to the conflictual past is avoided; the second is a selective approach where nation-states or groups keep silent about aspects that involve wrongdoing of one’s own group, here called “ingroup”, and offer either a positive presentation of the “ingroup” or a preservation of the memory of the conflict by reiterating master narratives of one-sided victimisation of the “ingroup”. Both of these approaches are highly problematic as they become an obstacle to conflict transformation by peaceful means and the cultivation of historical thinking. A third approach attempts to overcome conflict by a simplistic understanding of a single peaceful narrative of co-existence, which often follows outdated and unhistorical conceptions of essentialist identities as a tool for nation- building. Finally, there is the interdisciplinary approach of transformative history teaching, which attempts a critical understanding of the conflictual past through the cultivation of historical thinking, empathy, an overcoming of ethnocentric narratives and the promotion of multiperspectivity. The transformative history teaching approach is the basis on which we situate the present recommendations.",
    keywords = "History Education Social Psychology Controversial Issues Inter-group conflict",
    author = "Alan McCully and C Psaltis and A Agbaria and C Makriyianni and F Pingel and H Karahasan and M Carretero and M Oguz and R Choplarou and S Philippou and W Wagner and Y Papadakis",
    note = "Reference text: Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice.Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3,193–209. Bar-Tal, D., & Salomon, G. (2006). Israeli-Jewish Narratives of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Evolvement, Contents, Functions and Consequences. In R.I. Rotberg (Ed.). Israeli and Palestinian narratives of conflict: History’s Double Helix. Bloonington: Indiana University Press.Bar-Tal, D., Chernyak-Hai, L., Schori, N., & Gundar, A. (2009). A sense of self-perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts. International Review of the Red Cross, 91(874), 229-258. Bekerman, Z., & Zembylas, M. (2011). The emotional complexities of teaching conflictual historical narratives: The case of integrated Palestinian-Jewish schools in Israel. Teachers College Record, 113(5), 1004-1030.Bentrovato, D, Korostelina, K. V., & Schulze, M. (Eds.) (2016). History can bite: history education in divided and postwar societies. G{\"o}ttingen: V&R Unipress. Bilali, R. (2013), National Narrative and Social Psychological Influences in Turks’ Denial of the Mass Killings of Armenians as Genocide. Journal of Social Issues, 69: 16–33. Branscombe, N. R., Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (1999). The context and content of social identity threat. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears, & B. Doosje (Eds.), Social identity: Context, commitment, content (pp. 35–58). Oxford, United Kingdom: Basil Blackwell.Cabecinhas, R. & Abadia, L.(2013). Narratives and social memory: theoretical and methodological approaches. Retrieved from http://www.lasics.uminho.pt/ojs/index.php/cecs_ebooks/issue/view/116/showToc Carretero, M. (2011). Constructing patriotism. Teaching history and memories in global worlds. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Carretero, M. The teaching of recent and violent conflicts as a challenge for history education, In C. Psaltis, M. Carretero & S. Cahajic-Clancy (in press). History Education and Conflict Transformation: Social Psychological Theories, History Teaching and Reconciliation. UK: Palgrave MacmillanCarretero, M., & van Alphen, F. (2014). Do Master Narratives Change Among High School Students? A Characterization of How National History Is Represented. Cognition and Instruction, 32(3), 290–312.Carretero, M., Asensio, M., & Rodriguez-Moneo, M. (Eds.). (2012). History education and the construction of national identities. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Carretero, M. Berger, S. & Grever, M. (Eds.) (2017). Handbook of Research in Historical Culture and History Education. Palgrave Macmillan.Chapman, A., Perikleous, L., Yakinthou, C., & Celal, R. Z. (2011). Thinking Historically about Missing Persons: A Guide for Teachers. Nico-sia: Association for Historical Dialogue and Research.Cole, E. (Ed.) (2007). Teaching the Violent Past: History Education and Reconciliation. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Duveen, G. (2001). Representations, identity, resistance. In K.Deaux and G. Philogene (Eds.), Representations of the social (pp. 257-284). Oxford: Blackwell. Ernst-Vintila, A. (2015). Mentalit{\'e} conspirationniste, socialisation, radicalisation. R{\'e}flexion th{\'e}orique et illustration empirique. Psihologia Sociala, nr. 36 (II)/2015, pp. 89-104Goldberg, T. (2013). “It’s in my veins”: Identity and disciplinary practice in students’ discussions of a historical issue. Theory & Research in Social Education, 41(1), 33–64.Goldberg, T. (2017).The official, the empathetic, and the critical: Three approaches to history teaching and reconciliation in Israel, In C. Psaltis, M. Carretero & S. Cahajic-Clancy. History Education and Conflict Transformation: Social Psychological Theories, History Teaching and Reconciliation. UK: Palgrave MacmillanKello, K. (2016). Sensitive and controversial issues in the classroom: Teaching history in a divided society. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 22(1), 35-53.Kello, & K., Wagner, W. (2014). Intrinsic and extrinsic patriotism in school: Teaching history after Estonia’s critical juncture. International Journal of Intercultural Relations.Kitson, A. (2007). History teaching and reconciliation in Northern Ire-land. In E. A. Cole (Ed.), Teaching the violent past: history education and reconciliation (pp. 123-55). Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Klar, Y. (2014). From “Do not arouse or awaken love until it so desires” through “Return to Zion” to “Conquest of the Land”: Paradigm shifts and sanctified reenactments in building the Jewish state. International Journal of intercultural relations.Klar, Y., Baram, H. (2014). In deFENCE of the ingroup historical narrative in an intractable intergroup conflict: an individual-difference perspective. Political Psychology. Klein, O. (2013). The lay historian: How ordinary people think about history. In R. Cabecinhas & L. Abadia (Eds.) Narratives and social memory: Theoretical and methodological approaches (pp. 25–45). Braga, Portugal: University of Minho.Korostelina, K., & L{\"a}ssig, S. (Eds.) (2013). History education and post-conflict reconciliation: reconsidering joint textbook projects. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.L{\'a}szl{\'o}, J. (2013). : Historical Tales and National Identity. An introduction to narrative social psychology. UK: Routledge.Lee, P. J. (1992). History in schools: Aims, purposes and approaches. A reply to John White. In: P. J. Lee, J. Slater, P.Walsh, J. White, The Aims of School History: The National Curriculum and Beyond. London (UK): Tufnell Press.Lee, P. J. (2004). Historical Literacy: Theory and research. International Journal of Historical Learning, Teaching and Research 5(2). Retrieved from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/historyresource/journal9/papers/lee.pdfLee, P. J. (2007). From national canon to historical literacy. In: M. Grever, S. Stuurman (eds.), Beyond the Canon: History in the Twenty-First Century. Basingstoke (UK): Palgrave Macmillan.Lee, P. J. (2011). Historical literacy and transformative history. In: L. Perikleous, & D. Shemilt (eds.), The Future of the Past: Why history edu-cation matters, pp. 129-168. Nicosia (Cyprus): Association for Historical Dialogue and Research.Lee, P.J. (2005) Putting Principles into Practice: Understanding His-tory, στο: M.S. Donovan and J.D. Bransford (επιμ.), How Students Learn: history, mathematics and science in the classroom, Washington DC: National Academy Press.Leone, G., Sarrica, M. (2014). Making room for negative emoions about the national past: An explorative study of effects of parrhesia on Italian colonial crimes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations.Licata, L & Mercy, A. (2015). Collective memory (Social psychology of). In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences. Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts I 12New York: Elsevier. See the topic “General Articles”Liu, J. H., & Hilton, D. J. (2005). How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 537–556.Liu, J. H., & L{\'a}szl{\'o}, J. (2007). A narrative theory of history and identity: Social identity, social representations, society and the individual. In G. Moloney & I. Walker (Eds.), Social representations and identity: Content, process and power (pp. 85–107). London, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.Lopez, C., Carretero, M., & Rodriguez-Moneo, M. (2014). Conquest or reconquest? Students’ conceptions of nation embedded in a historical narrative. Journal of the Learning Sciences.Makriyianni, C. & Psaltis, C. (2007) The teaching of history and reconciliation, The Cyprus Review, 19(1), 43- 69.Martinovic, B. & Verkuyten, M. (2013), ‘We were here first, so we determine the rules of the game’: Autochthony and prejudice towards outgroups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43: 637–647.McCully, A. & Barton, K.C. (2010). “You can form your own point of view”: Internally persuasive discourse in Northern Ireland Students’ encounters with History. Teachers College Record, 112 (1), 142-181.McCully, A. (2012). History Teaching, Conflict and the legacy of the past. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7(2), 145- 159.Nasie, M., Bar-Tal, D., Pliskin, R., Nahhas, E., Haperin, E., (2014). Overcoming the Barrier of Narrative Adherence in Conflicts Through Awareness of the Psychological Bias of Naive Realism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 1543-1557. Nichol, J. (n.d.). Assessing children: profiling progression Retrieved 1 October, 2016, from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/historyresource/publications/ASSESSING{\%}20CHILDREN.docP{\'a}ez, D., Bobowik, M., Liu,J.H. (2017). Collective memory, social representations of past and competences in history education. In M. Carretero, S. Berger, & M. Grever (Eds.). Handbook of Research in His-torical Culture and History Education (pp. 491-510). London: Palgrave MacMillan.Papadakis, Y. (2008). Narrative, memory and history in divided Cyprus: A comparison of school books on the history of Cyprus. History & Museum, 20, 128-148.Paulson, J. (2015). ‘”Whether and how?” History education about recent and ongoing conflict: a review of research. Journal on Education in Emergencies, 1 (1), 14-47.Pettigrew, T. F. (1979). The ultimate attribution error: Extending All-port’s cognitive analysis of prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 5 (4), 461–476.Pettigrew, T. F.& Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of inter-group contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 90 (5) ,751–783.Psaltis, C. (2012). Intergroup trust and contact in transition: A social representations perspective on the Cyprus conflict. In I. Markova & A. Gillespie, (Eds.) Trust and Conflict: Representations, Culture and Dialogue, (pp. 83-104), London: Routledge.Psaltis, C. (2015a). Genetic Social Psychology: From microgenesis to ontogenesis and sociogenesis...and back. In C.Psaltis, A. Gillespie & A.N.P Perret-Clermont, (Eds.) Social Relations in Human and Societal Development, UK: Palgrave, Macmillan.Psaltis, C. (2015b). Communication and the microgenetic construction of Knowledge. In (Eds.) Sammut, G. Andreouli, E. Gaskell, G. & Valsiner, J. Handbook of Social Representations, (pp.113-127). Cambridge: CUP.Psaltis, C. (2016).Collective memory, social representations of inter-communal relations and conflict transformation in divided Cyprus. eace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 22 (1): 19-27.Psaltis, C. Franc, R. Smeekes, Ioannou, M. & Žeželj, I. (2017). Social representations of the past in post-conflict societies: adherence to official historical narratives and distrust through heightened threats. In C. Psaltis, M. Carretero & S. Cahajic-Clancy. History Education and Conflict Transformation: Social Psychological Theories, History Teaching and Reconciliation. UK: Palgrave MacmillanPsaltis, C., Lytras, E.& Costache, S. (2011). History Educators in the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot Community of Cyprus: Perceptions, Beliefs and Practices. Nicosia: UNDP-ACT.Psaltis,, C., Carretero, M.& Cahajic-Clancy, S. (2017). History Education and Conflict Transformation - Social Psychological Theories, History Teaching and Reconciliation. Palgrave McMillanPingel, F. (2011). Dealing with conflict-New Perspectives in International Textbook Revision. In: L. Perikleous & D. Shemilt (eds.), The Future of the Past: Why history education matters, pp. 129-168. Nicosia (Cyprus): Association for Historical Dialogue and Research.Rim{\'e}, B., Bouchat, P., Klein, O., & Licata, L. (2015). When Collective Memories of Victimhood Fade: Generational Evolution of Intergroup Attitudes and Political Aspirations in Belgium. European Journal of Social Psychology.Rudmin, F. W. (2014). Cognitive history and the neurotic regulation of historical beliefs: the case of Canadians encountering War Plan RED (1904-1939). The Journal of psychohistory, 42(1), 2–27. See the topic “General Articles”Seixas, P. (1996). Conceptualizing the Growth of Historical Understanding. In D. R. Olson & N. Torrance (Eds.), Handbook of Education and Human Development: New Models of Learning, Teaching, and Schooling (pp. 765-783). Oxford: Blackwell.Shemilt, D. (1980). History 13-16 evaluation study. Edinburgh (UK): Holmes McDougall.Shemilt, D. (2011). The gods of the copybook headings: Why don’t we learn from the past? In: L. Perikleous, D. Shemilt (eds.), The future of the past: Why history education matters. Nicosia (Cyprus): Association for Historical Dialogue and Research.Smeekes, A. McKeown, S. & Psaltis, C. (2017). Endorsing narratives under threat: maintaining perceived collective continuity through the protective power of ingroup narratives in Northern Ireland and Cyprus. Journal of Social and Political Psychology. Smeekes A., Verkuyten M. (2015). The presence of the past: Identity continuity and group dynamics. European Review of Social Psychology, 26, 162-202.Stradling, R. (2003). Multiperspectivity in History Teaching: a Guide for Teachers (2003). Council of Europe Publications.Van Alphen, F. & Carretero, M. (2015) The Construction of the Relation Between National Past and present in the Appropriation of Historical Master Narratives. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science. 49, 3, 512-530.Vezzali, L. Hewstone, M., Capozza,D. Giovannini, D. & W{\"o}lfer, R. (2014). Improving intergroup relations with extended and vicarious forms of indirect contact, European Review of Social Psychology, 25:1,314-389 Zembylas, M. & Kambani, F. (2012). The teaching of controversial issues during elementary-level history instruction: Greek-Cypriot teachers’ perceptions and emotions. Theory and Research in Social Education, 40, 107-133.",
    year = "2017",
    month = "6",
    day = "3",
    language = "English",

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    McCully, A, Psaltis, C, Agbaria, A, Makriyianni, C, Pingel, F, Karahasan, H, Carretero, M, Oguz, M, Choplarou, R, Philippou, S, Wagner, W & Papadakis, Y 2017, Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts.

    Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts. / McCully, Alan; Psaltis, C; Agbaria, A; Makriyianni, C; Pingel, F; Karahasan, H; Carretero, M; Oguz, M; Choplarou, R; Philippou, S; Wagner, W; Papadakis, Y.

    2017. 16 p.

    Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

    TY - BOOK

    T1 - Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts.

    AU - McCully, Alan

    AU - Psaltis, C

    AU - Agbaria, A

    AU - Makriyianni, C

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    N1 - Reference text: Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice.Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3,193–209. Bar-Tal, D., & Salomon, G. (2006). Israeli-Jewish Narratives of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Evolvement, Contents, Functions and Consequences. In R.I. Rotberg (Ed.). Israeli and Palestinian narratives of conflict: History’s Double Helix. Bloonington: Indiana University Press.Bar-Tal, D., Chernyak-Hai, L., Schori, N., & Gundar, A. (2009). A sense of self-perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts. International Review of the Red Cross, 91(874), 229-258. Bekerman, Z., & Zembylas, M. (2011). The emotional complexities of teaching conflictual historical narratives: The case of integrated Palestinian-Jewish schools in Israel. Teachers College Record, 113(5), 1004-1030.Bentrovato, D, Korostelina, K. V., & Schulze, M. (Eds.) (2016). History can bite: history education in divided and postwar societies. Göttingen: V&R Unipress. Bilali, R. (2013), National Narrative and Social Psychological Influences in Turks’ Denial of the Mass Killings of Armenians as Genocide. Journal of Social Issues, 69: 16–33. Branscombe, N. R., Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (1999). The context and content of social identity threat. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears, & B. Doosje (Eds.), Social identity: Context, commitment, content (pp. 35–58). Oxford, United Kingdom: Basil Blackwell.Cabecinhas, R. & Abadia, L.(2013). Narratives and social memory: theoretical and methodological approaches. Retrieved from http://www.lasics.uminho.pt/ojs/index.php/cecs_ebooks/issue/view/116/showToc Carretero, M. (2011). Constructing patriotism. Teaching history and memories in global worlds. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Carretero, M. The teaching of recent and violent conflicts as a challenge for history education, In C. Psaltis, M. Carretero & S. Cahajic-Clancy (in press). History Education and Conflict Transformation: Social Psychological Theories, History Teaching and Reconciliation. UK: Palgrave MacmillanCarretero, M., & van Alphen, F. (2014). Do Master Narratives Change Among High School Students? A Characterization of How National History Is Represented. Cognition and Instruction, 32(3), 290–312.Carretero, M., Asensio, M., & Rodriguez-Moneo, M. (Eds.). (2012). History education and the construction of national identities. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Carretero, M. Berger, S. & Grever, M. (Eds.) (2017). Handbook of Research in Historical Culture and History Education. Palgrave Macmillan.Chapman, A., Perikleous, L., Yakinthou, C., & Celal, R. Z. (2011). Thinking Historically about Missing Persons: A Guide for Teachers. Nico-sia: Association for Historical Dialogue and Research.Cole, E. (Ed.) (2007). Teaching the Violent Past: History Education and Reconciliation. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Duveen, G. (2001). Representations, identity, resistance. In K.Deaux and G. Philogene (Eds.), Representations of the social (pp. 257-284). Oxford: Blackwell. Ernst-Vintila, A. (2015). Mentalité conspirationniste, socialisation, radicalisation. Réflexion théorique et illustration empirique. Psihologia Sociala, nr. 36 (II)/2015, pp. 89-104Goldberg, T. (2013). “It’s in my veins”: Identity and disciplinary practice in students’ discussions of a historical issue. Theory & Research in Social Education, 41(1), 33–64.Goldberg, T. (2017).The official, the empathetic, and the critical: Three approaches to history teaching and reconciliation in Israel, In C. Psaltis, M. Carretero & S. Cahajic-Clancy. History Education and Conflict Transformation: Social Psychological Theories, History Teaching and Reconciliation. UK: Palgrave MacmillanKello, K. (2016). Sensitive and controversial issues in the classroom: Teaching history in a divided society. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 22(1), 35-53.Kello, & K., Wagner, W. (2014). Intrinsic and extrinsic patriotism in school: Teaching history after Estonia’s critical juncture. International Journal of Intercultural Relations.Kitson, A. (2007). History teaching and reconciliation in Northern Ire-land. In E. A. Cole (Ed.), Teaching the violent past: history education and reconciliation (pp. 123-55). Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Klar, Y. (2014). From “Do not arouse or awaken love until it so desires” through “Return to Zion” to “Conquest of the Land”: Paradigm shifts and sanctified reenactments in building the Jewish state. International Journal of intercultural relations.Klar, Y., Baram, H. (2014). In deFENCE of the ingroup historical narrative in an intractable intergroup conflict: an individual-difference perspective. Political Psychology. Klein, O. (2013). The lay historian: How ordinary people think about history. In R. Cabecinhas & L. Abadia (Eds.) Narratives and social memory: Theoretical and methodological approaches (pp. 25–45). Braga, Portugal: University of Minho.Korostelina, K., & Lässig, S. (Eds.) (2013). History education and post-conflict reconciliation: reconsidering joint textbook projects. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.László, J. (2013). : Historical Tales and National Identity. An introduction to narrative social psychology. UK: Routledge.Lee, P. J. (1992). History in schools: Aims, purposes and approaches. A reply to John White. In: P. J. Lee, J. Slater, P.Walsh, J. White, The Aims of School History: The National Curriculum and Beyond. London (UK): Tufnell Press.Lee, P. J. (2004). Historical Literacy: Theory and research. International Journal of Historical Learning, Teaching and Research 5(2). Retrieved from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/historyresource/journal9/papers/lee.pdfLee, P. J. (2007). From national canon to historical literacy. In: M. Grever, S. Stuurman (eds.), Beyond the Canon: History in the Twenty-First Century. Basingstoke (UK): Palgrave Macmillan.Lee, P. J. (2011). Historical literacy and transformative history. In: L. Perikleous, & D. Shemilt (eds.), The Future of the Past: Why history edu-cation matters, pp. 129-168. Nicosia (Cyprus): Association for Historical Dialogue and Research.Lee, P.J. (2005) Putting Principles into Practice: Understanding His-tory, στο: M.S. Donovan and J.D. Bransford (επιμ.), How Students Learn: history, mathematics and science in the classroom, Washington DC: National Academy Press.Leone, G., Sarrica, M. (2014). Making room for negative emoions about the national past: An explorative study of effects of parrhesia on Italian colonial crimes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations.Licata, L & Mercy, A. (2015). Collective memory (Social psychology of). In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences. Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts I 12New York: Elsevier. See the topic “General Articles”Liu, J. H., & Hilton, D. J. (2005). How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 537–556.Liu, J. H., & László, J. (2007). A narrative theory of history and identity: Social identity, social representations, society and the individual. In G. Moloney & I. Walker (Eds.), Social representations and identity: Content, process and power (pp. 85–107). London, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.Lopez, C., Carretero, M., & Rodriguez-Moneo, M. (2014). Conquest or reconquest? Students’ conceptions of nation embedded in a historical narrative. Journal of the Learning Sciences.Makriyianni, C. & Psaltis, C. (2007) The teaching of history and reconciliation, The Cyprus Review, 19(1), 43- 69.Martinovic, B. & Verkuyten, M. (2013), ‘We were here first, so we determine the rules of the game’: Autochthony and prejudice towards outgroups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43: 637–647.McCully, A. & Barton, K.C. (2010). “You can form your own point of view”: Internally persuasive discourse in Northern Ireland Students’ encounters with History. Teachers College Record, 112 (1), 142-181.McCully, A. (2012). History Teaching, Conflict and the legacy of the past. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7(2), 145- 159.Nasie, M., Bar-Tal, D., Pliskin, R., Nahhas, E., Haperin, E., (2014). Overcoming the Barrier of Narrative Adherence in Conflicts Through Awareness of the Psychological Bias of Naive Realism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 1543-1557. Nichol, J. (n.d.). Assessing children: profiling progression Retrieved 1 October, 2016, from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/historyresource/publications/ASSESSING%20CHILDREN.docPáez, D., Bobowik, M., Liu,J.H. (2017). Collective memory, social representations of past and competences in history education. In M. Carretero, S. Berger, & M. Grever (Eds.). Handbook of Research in His-torical Culture and History Education (pp. 491-510). London: Palgrave MacMillan.Papadakis, Y. (2008). Narrative, memory and history in divided Cyprus: A comparison of school books on the history of Cyprus. History & Museum, 20, 128-148.Paulson, J. (2015). ‘”Whether and how?” History education about recent and ongoing conflict: a review of research. Journal on Education in Emergencies, 1 (1), 14-47.Pettigrew, T. F. (1979). The ultimate attribution error: Extending All-port’s cognitive analysis of prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 5 (4), 461–476.Pettigrew, T. F.& Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of inter-group contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 90 (5) ,751–783.Psaltis, C. (2012). Intergroup trust and contact in transition: A social representations perspective on the Cyprus conflict. In I. Markova & A. Gillespie, (Eds.) Trust and Conflict: Representations, Culture and Dialogue, (pp. 83-104), London: Routledge.Psaltis, C. (2015a). Genetic Social Psychology: From microgenesis to ontogenesis and sociogenesis...and back. In C.Psaltis, A. Gillespie & A.N.P Perret-Clermont, (Eds.) Social Relations in Human and Societal Development, UK: Palgrave, Macmillan.Psaltis, C. (2015b). Communication and the microgenetic construction of Knowledge. In (Eds.) Sammut, G. Andreouli, E. Gaskell, G. & Valsiner, J. Handbook of Social Representations, (pp.113-127). Cambridge: CUP.Psaltis, C. (2016).Collective memory, social representations of inter-communal relations and conflict transformation in divided Cyprus. eace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 22 (1): 19-27.Psaltis, C. Franc, R. Smeekes, Ioannou, M. & Žeželj, I. (2017). 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    PY - 2017/6/3

    Y1 - 2017/6/3

    N2 - The way recent and old intergroup conflicts are presented around the world in curricula, textbooks, civil society and social representations can be characterised by four main approaches. In the first approach, a moratorium is imposed and any reference to the conflictual past is avoided; the second is a selective approach where nation-states or groups keep silent about aspects that involve wrongdoing of one’s own group, here called “ingroup”, and offer either a positive presentation of the “ingroup” or a preservation of the memory of the conflict by reiterating master narratives of one-sided victimisation of the “ingroup”. Both of these approaches are highly problematic as they become an obstacle to conflict transformation by peaceful means and the cultivation of historical thinking. A third approach attempts to overcome conflict by a simplistic understanding of a single peaceful narrative of co-existence, which often follows outdated and unhistorical conceptions of essentialist identities as a tool for nation- building. Finally, there is the interdisciplinary approach of transformative history teaching, which attempts a critical understanding of the conflictual past through the cultivation of historical thinking, empathy, an overcoming of ethnocentric narratives and the promotion of multiperspectivity. The transformative history teaching approach is the basis on which we situate the present recommendations.

    AB - The way recent and old intergroup conflicts are presented around the world in curricula, textbooks, civil society and social representations can be characterised by four main approaches. In the first approach, a moratorium is imposed and any reference to the conflictual past is avoided; the second is a selective approach where nation-states or groups keep silent about aspects that involve wrongdoing of one’s own group, here called “ingroup”, and offer either a positive presentation of the “ingroup” or a preservation of the memory of the conflict by reiterating master narratives of one-sided victimisation of the “ingroup”. Both of these approaches are highly problematic as they become an obstacle to conflict transformation by peaceful means and the cultivation of historical thinking. A third approach attempts to overcome conflict by a simplistic understanding of a single peaceful narrative of co-existence, which often follows outdated and unhistorical conceptions of essentialist identities as a tool for nation- building. Finally, there is the interdisciplinary approach of transformative history teaching, which attempts a critical understanding of the conflictual past through the cultivation of historical thinking, empathy, an overcoming of ethnocentric narratives and the promotion of multiperspectivity. The transformative history teaching approach is the basis on which we situate the present recommendations.

    KW - History Education Social Psychology Controversial Issues Inter-group conflict

    M3 - Commissioned report

    BT - Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts.

    ER -

    McCully A, Psaltis C, Agbaria A, Makriyianni C, Pingel F, Karahasan H et al. Recommendations for the History Teaching of Intergroup Conflicts. 2017. 16 p.