Recent advances in peptide-based therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes

Clifford J Bailey, Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon

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3 Citations (Scopus)
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Options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity have recently been expanded by the results of several large clinical trials with incretin-based peptide therapies. Most of these studies have been conducted with the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist semaglutide, which is available as a once weekly subcutaneous injection and once daily tablet, and the once weekly injected dual agonist tirzepatide, which interacts with receptors for GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). In individuals with T2DM these therapies have achieved reductions of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) by >2% and lowered body weight by >10%. In some studies, these agents tested in non-diabetic, obese individuals at much higher doses have lowered body weight by >15%. Emerging evidence suggests these agents can also offer cardio-protective and potentially reno-protective effects. Other incretin-based peptide therapies in early clinical development, notably a triple GLP-1/GIP/glucagon receptor agonist (retatrutide) and a combination of semaglutide with the amylin analogue cagrilintide (CagriSema), have shown strong efficacy. Although incretin therapies can incur adverse gastrointestinal effects these are for most patients mild-to-moderate and transient but result in cessation of treatment in some cases. Thus, the efficacy of new incretin-based peptide therapies is enhancing the opportunity to control body weight and blood glucose and improve the treatment of T2DM and obesity. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
Original languageEnglish
Article number171149
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages10
Early online date5 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Cagrilintide
  • Tirzepatide
  • multi-agonist
  • Retatrutide
  • Semaglutide
  • Incretin


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