Re-entry Trauma: Asian Re-integration After Study in the West

Rosalind PRITCHARD

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    17 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Many students who re-locate from host to home country are said to undergo aprocess of reverse culture shock akin to bereavement, involving stages of a grievingprocess. This has been likened to a ‘W-curve’ in which feelings fluctuate beforereaching a more balanced state. The present study examined the re-acculturation ofTaiwanese and Sri Lankan graduates after study in the West. It did not find evidenceof re-entry trauma in the psychological sense already established in the literature,but it did find socio-political issues that were associated with the tension betweenmodernism and traditionalism, or individualism and collectivism.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages93-111
    JournalJournal of Studies in International Education
    Volume15
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011

    Fingerprint

    Trauma
    Bereavement
    Individualism
    Traditionalism
    Political Issues
    Psychological
    Culture Shock
    Asia
    Collectivism
    Acculturation

    Keywords

    • re-acculturation
    • re-entry
    • modernism
    • traditionalism
    • individualism
    • collectivism
    • Taiwan
    • Sri Lanka
    • W-curve
    • U-curve

    Cite this

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    title = "Re-entry Trauma: Asian Re-integration After Study in the West",
    abstract = "Many students who re-locate from host to home country are said to undergo aprocess of reverse culture shock akin to bereavement, involving stages of a grievingprocess. This has been likened to a ‘W-curve’ in which feelings fluctuate beforereaching a more balanced state. The present study examined the re-acculturation ofTaiwanese and Sri Lankan graduates after study in the West. It did not find evidenceof re-entry trauma in the psychological sense already established in the literature,but it did find socio-political issues that were associated with the tension betweenmodernism and traditionalism, or individualism and collectivism.",
    keywords = "re-acculturation, re-entry, modernism, traditionalism, individualism, collectivism, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, W-curve, U-curve",
    author = "Rosalind PRITCHARD",
    note = "Reference text: Abu-Lughod, L. (1991). Writing against culture. In R. Fox (Ed.), Recapturing anthropology: Working in the present (pp. 137-162). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press. Arvind, V., Phatak, A. V., Bhagat, R. S., & Kashlak, R. J. (2005). International management: Managing in a diverse and dynamic global environment. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Austin, C. N. (Ed.). (1986). Cross-cultural re-entry: A book of readings. Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University. Black, J. S., & Gregersen, H. B. (1990). Expectations, satisfaction, and intention to leave of American managers in Japan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, 485-506. Blohm, J. M. (1996). Saying goodbye. In H. N. Seelye (Ed.), Experiential activities for intercultural learning (pp. 221-229). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Butcher, A. A. (2002). A grief observed: Grief experiences of East Asian international students returning to their countries of origin. Journal of Studies in International Education, 6, 354-368. Chiu, M. L. (1995). The influence of anticipatory fear on foreign student adjustment: An exploratory study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19, 1-44. Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Feng-Bing, M. (2004). Ethnographic case studies of ethnic Chinese school children’s experiences of and perspectives on living in Northern Ireland. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, UK. Freedman, A. (1986). A strategy for managing “cultural” transitions: Re-entry from training. In C. N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural re-entry: A book of readings (pp. 19-28). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University. Gullahorn, J. T., & Gullahorn, J. E. (1963). An extension of the U-curve hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues, 14, 33-47. Hammer, M. R., Hart, W., & Rogan, R. (1998). Repatriation of corporate managers and spouses. Management International Review, 38, 67-86. Harber C. R. and Serf, J. (2004). Exploring Ubuntu: Education & development–an introduction to theories and debates. Birmingham: Teachers in Developing Education. 110 Journal of Studies in International Education 15(1) Human Development Report. (2001). Making new technologies work for human development. Available from www.undp.org/hdr2001 Higher Education Statistical Agency. (2006). All HE students in higher education institutions 2005/06 Table 2e—All HE students by level of study, mode of study, subject of study(#1), domicile and gender 2005/06. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from http://www.hesa.ac.uk/ dox/dataTables/studentsAndQualifiers/download/subject0506.xls Hipkins Sobie, J. (1986). The culture of coming home again. In C. N. Austin, Cross-Cultural Re-entry: A Book of Readings (pp. 5-101). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University. Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (2006). Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Isogai, T. Y., Hayashi, Y., & Uno, M. (1999). Identity issues and re-entry training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 493-525. Jansson, D. P. (1986). Return to society: Problematic Features of the re-entry process. In C. N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural re-entry: A book of readings (pp. 49-59). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University. Lysgaard, S. (1955). Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States. International Social Science Bulletin, 7, 45-51. Martin, J. N. (1984). The intercultural re-entry: Conceptualization and directions for future research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 8, 115-134. McLaren, M. C. (1998). Interpreting cultural differences: The challenge of intercultural communication. Dereham, UK: Peter Francis. Oberg, K. (1960). Cultural shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments. Practical Anthropology, 7, 177-182. Pritchard, R.M.O. & Skinner, B. (2002) Cross-cultural partnerships between home and international students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 6, 323-354. Rogers, J., & Ward, C. (1993). Expectation-experience discrepancies and psychological adjustment during cross-cultural re-entry. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17, 185-196. Rohrlich, B. F., & Martin, J. N. (1991). Host country and re-entry adjustment of student sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 161-182. Ronen, S., & Shenkar, O. (1985) Clustering countries on attitudinal dimensions: A review and synthesis. Academy of Management Review, 10, 435-454. Rothbaum, F., & Xu, X. (1995). The theme of giving back to parents in Chinese and American songs. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 698-713. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, {\cC}. K{\^a}git{\cc}ibasi, S. G. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism: Theory, application and methods (pp.85-119). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Sussman, N. M. (2001). Repatriation transitions: Psychological preparedness, cultural identity, and attributions among American managers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 119-123. Sussman, N. M. (2002). Testing the cultural identity model of the cultural transition cycle: Sojourners return home. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 391-408. Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. New York: Falmer. Pritchard 111 United Nations Development Programme. (2005). UNDP Human Development Report (HDR). New York: Oxford University Press. Vanderpoorten, V. (2007). Nothing prepares you. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Zeus. Werkman, S. L. (1986). Coming home. In C. N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural re-entry: A book of readings (pp. 5-17). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University.",
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    Re-entry Trauma: Asian Re-integration After Study in the West. / PRITCHARD, Rosalind.

    In: Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 15, No. 1, 01.2011, p. 93-111.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Journal of Studies in International Education, 6, 354-368. Chiu, M. L. (1995). The influence of anticipatory fear on foreign student adjustment: An exploratory study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19, 1-44. Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Feng-Bing, M. (2004). Ethnographic case studies of ethnic Chinese school children’s experiences of and perspectives on living in Northern Ireland. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, UK. Freedman, A. (1986). A strategy for managing “cultural” transitions: Re-entry from training. In C. N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural re-entry: A book of readings (pp. 19-28). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University. Gullahorn, J. T., & Gullahorn, J. E. (1963). An extension of the U-curve hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues, 14, 33-47. Hammer, M. R., Hart, W., & Rogan, R. (1998). Repatriation of corporate managers and spouses. Management International Review, 38, 67-86. Harber C. R. and Serf, J. (2004). Exploring Ubuntu: Education & development–an introduction to theories and debates. Birmingham: Teachers in Developing Education. 110 Journal of Studies in International Education 15(1) Human Development Report. (2001). Making new technologies work for human development. Available from www.undp.org/hdr2001 Higher Education Statistical Agency. (2006). All HE students in higher education institutions 2005/06 Table 2e—All HE students by level of study, mode of study, subject of study(#1), domicile and gender 2005/06. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from http://www.hesa.ac.uk/ dox/dataTables/studentsAndQualifiers/download/subject0506.xls Hipkins Sobie, J. (1986). The culture of coming home again. In C. N. Austin, Cross-Cultural Re-entry: A Book of Readings (pp. 5-101). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University. Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (2006). Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Isogai, T. Y., Hayashi, Y., & Uno, M. (1999). Identity issues and re-entry training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 493-525. Jansson, D. P. (1986). Return to society: Problematic Features of the re-entry process. In C. N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural re-entry: A book of readings (pp. 49-59). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University. Lysgaard, S. (1955). Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States. International Social Science Bulletin, 7, 45-51. Martin, J. N. (1984). The intercultural re-entry: Conceptualization and directions for future research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 8, 115-134. McLaren, M. C. (1998). Interpreting cultural differences: The challenge of intercultural communication. Dereham, UK: Peter Francis. Oberg, K. (1960). Cultural shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments. Practical Anthropology, 7, 177-182. Pritchard, R.M.O. & Skinner, B. (2002) Cross-cultural partnerships between home and international students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 6, 323-354. Rogers, J., & Ward, C. (1993). Expectation-experience discrepancies and psychological adjustment during cross-cultural re-entry. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17, 185-196. Rohrlich, B. F., & Martin, J. N. (1991). Host country and re-entry adjustment of student sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 161-182. Ronen, S., & Shenkar, O. (1985) Clustering countries on attitudinal dimensions: A review and synthesis. Academy of Management Review, 10, 435-454. Rothbaum, F., & Xu, X. (1995). The theme of giving back to parents in Chinese and American songs. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 698-713. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, Ç. Kâgitçibasi, S. G. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism: Theory, application and methods (pp.85-119). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Sussman, N. M. (2001). Repatriation transitions: Psychological preparedness, cultural identity, and attributions among American managers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 119-123. Sussman, N. M. (2002). Testing the cultural identity model of the cultural transition cycle: Sojourners return home. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 391-408. Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. New York: Falmer. Pritchard 111 United Nations Development Programme. (2005). UNDP Human Development Report (HDR). New York: Oxford University Press. Vanderpoorten, V. (2007). Nothing prepares you. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Zeus. Werkman, S. L. (1986). Coming home. In C. N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural re-entry: A book of readings (pp. 5-17). Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University.

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