Quantitative measurement of Upper limb motion pre- and post-treatment with Botulinum Toxin

Lu Bai, Matthew G. Pepper, Yong Yan, Malcolm Phillips, Mohamed Sakel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Muscle spasticity is a common motor complication after stroke and brain injury, and Botulinum Toxin is considered effective treatment for upper limb spasticity. However, clinical assessments are not possible to provide the quantitative measurement of changes happening on different upper limb segments. Methods: We aim to develop a multi-sensor system for quantitatively measurement of movement in all segments of upper limb. Five patients under neurorehabilitation were recruited to attend two-session rehabilitation assessment program to evaluate the changes before and one week after the Botulinum Toxin treatment. Results: Clinical assessments all improved in general (Disability Assessment Scale: p < 0.01). Analysis of Kinematic parameters and smoothness quantification parameters showed that number of movement units (p < 0.05 for elbow and wrist), normalised jerk scores improved for all upper limb segments. Conclusions: This study demonstrate that our multi-sensor inertial sensing system can provide additional insights for motion quantification pre and post the Botulinum Toxin treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108304
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
Early online date1 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 15 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to patients and staff of the East Kent NeuroRehabilitation Unit for supporting this University and Hospital’s jointly funded PhD project. We thank the University of Kent and East Kent Hospitals University NHS Foundation Trust (EKHUFT) for this PhD project funding.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd


  • Botulinum toxin
  • Kinematics
  • Quantitative measures
  • Upper limb function


Dive into the research topics of 'Quantitative measurement of Upper limb motion pre- and post-treatment with Botulinum Toxin'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this