Quantification of Head Acceleration Events in Rugby League: An Instrumented Mouthguard and Video Analysis Pilot Study

James Tooby, Dan Weaving, Marwan Al-Dawoud, Gregory Tierney

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19 Citations (Scopus)
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Instrumented mouthguards (iMG) were used to collect head acceleration events (HAE) in men’s professional rugby league matches. Peak linear acceleration (PLA), peak angular acceleration (PAA) and peak change in angular velocity (∆PAV) were collected using custom-fit iMG set with a 5 g single iMG-axis recording threshold. iMG were fitted to ten male Super League players for thirty-one player matches. Video analysis was conducted on HAE to identify the contact event; impacted player; tackle stage and head loading type. A total of 1622 video-verified HAE were recorded. Approximately three-quarters of HAE (75.7%) occurred below 10 g. Most (98.2%) HAE occurred during tackles (59.3% to tackler; 40.7% to ball carrier) and the initial collision stage of the tackle (43.9%). The initial collision stage resulted in significantly greater PAA and ∆PAV than secondary contact and play the ball tackle stages (p < 0.001). Indirect HAE accounted for 29.8% of HAE and resulted in significantly greater ∆PAV (p < 0.001) than direct HAE, but significantly lower PLA (p < 0.001). Almost all HAE were sustained in the tackle, with the majority occurring during the initial collision stage, making it an area of focus for the development of player protection strategies for both ball carriers and tacklers. League-wide and community-level implementation of iMG could enable a greater understanding of head acceleration exposure between playing positions, cohorts, and levels of play.

Original languageEnglish
Article number584
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 13 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for profit sectors. The iMG were provided in kind by Prevent Biometrics for research use. D.W. and M.A.-D. are employed by Leeds Rhinos in a consultancy capacity. J.T., G.T., D.W., and M.A.-D. are undertaking a large-scale iMG study, funded by the Rugby Football League. The iMG provider has not been determined.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Biomechanics
  • Concussion
  • Head impact
  • Kinematics
  • Subconcussion


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