Pulmonary Sequelae of COVID-19: Focus on Interstitial Lung Disease

Janet Johnston, Delia Dorrian, Dermot Linden, Stefan Cristian Stanel, Pilar Rivera-Ortega, Nazia Chaudhuri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


As the world transitions from the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, a novel concern has arisen—interstitial lung disease (ILD) as a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review discusses what we have learned about its epidemiology, radiological, and pulmonary function findings, risk factors, and possible management strategies. Notably, the prevailing radiological pattern observed is organising pneumonia, with ground-glass opacities and reticulation frequently reported. Longitudinal studies reveal a complex trajectory, with some demonstrating improvement in lung function and radiographic abnormalities over time, whereas others show more static fibrotic changes. Age, disease severity, and male sex are emerging as risk factors for residual lung abnormalities. The intricate relationship between post-COVID ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) genetics underscores the need for further research and elucidation of shared pathways. As this new disease entity unfolds, continued research is vital to guide clinical decision making and improve outcomes for patients with post-COVID ILD.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2238
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Issue number18
Early online date8 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 8 Sept 2023


  • post-COVID ILD
  • COVID-19
  • interstitial lung disease
  • residual lung abnormalities
  • Pulmonary fibrosis


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