PTSD's latent structure in Malaysian tsunami victims: Assessing the newly proposed Dysphoric Arousal model

Cherie Armour, Siti Raudzah Ghazali, Ask Elklit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The underlying latent structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is widely researched. However, despite a plethora of factor analytic studies, no single model has consistently been shown as superior to alternative models. The two most often supported models are the Emotional Numbing and the Dysphoria models. However, a recently proposed five-factor Dysphoric Arousal model has been gathering support over and above existing models. Data for the current study were gathered from Malaysian Tsunami survivors (N=250). Three competing models (Emotional Numbing/Dysphoria/Dysphoric Arousal) were specified and estimated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The Dysphoria model provided superior fit to the data compared to the Emotional Numbing model. However, using chi-square difference tests, the Dysphoric Arousal model showed a superior fit compared to both the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the Dysphoric Arousal model better represents PTSD's latent structure and that items measuring sleeping difficulties, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties form a separate, unique PTSD factor. These results are discussed in relation to the role of Hyperarousal in PTSD's on-going symptom maintenance and in relation to the DSM-5.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-32
JournalPsychiatry research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 2013


  • PTSD
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Five factor model
  • Dysphoric arousal
  • Anxious arousal
  • Tsunami
  • Natural disaster


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