Psychometric Assessment of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in Athletes: a Bi-factor Modelling Approach

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Abstract

Aim: A recent mental health in sport consensus statement (Breslin et al., 2019) advocates Keyes (2002) two-continua model with an associated Mental Health Continuum (MHC) instrument to assess mental health in athletes. However, there remains statistically inconsistent usage of the MHC in athletes, so further exploration of the MHC’s psychometric factors is required.
Methods: Athletes (N=1,097) aged 32.63 (SD =11.16) comprising 603 females (55.7%) and 478 males (44.3%), completed the 14-item MHC-short form (MHC-SF), alongside validated measures of anxiety and depression. Five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) and bi-factor models were developed based on extant research and theory.
Results: Overall, first-order models did not fit the data, but a bi-factor structure with a ‘general’ positive mental health factor, and three specific factors (‘Hedonic well-being’, ‘Social well-being’ and ‘Psychological well-being’) fitted the data well and was deemed the superior model.
Conclusions: A bi-factor model of the MHC-SF is recommended comprising a composite score alongside specific factors of hedonic, social and psychological well-being
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Sport Psychology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 9 Mar 2022

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