Protein adhesion and cell response on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge-modified polymer surfaces

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Abstract

Gaseous plasma discharges are one of the most common means to modify the surface of a polymer without affecting its bulk properties. However, this normally requires the materials to be processed in vacuo to create the active species required to permanently modify the surface chemistry. The ability to invoke such changes under normal ambient conditions in a cost-effective manner has much to offer to enhance the response of medical implants in vivo. It is therefore important to accurately determine the nature and scale of the effects derived from this technology. This paper reports on the modification of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using atmospheric pressure plasma processing via exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The changes in surface chemistry and topography after DBD treatment were characterised using water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy. A marked increase in the surface oxygen concentration was observed for both PMMA and PS. An increase in surface roughness was observed for PMMA, but not for PS. These changes were found to result in an increase in surface wettability for both polymers. Adsorption of albumin (Alb) onto these substrates was studied using XPS and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The rate of adsorption of Alb onto pristine PMMA and PS was faster than that on the DBD-treated polymers. XPS indicated that a similar concentration of Alb occurred on both of the treated surfaces. Deconvolution of the C1s XPS spectra showed that Alb is adsorbed differently on pristine (hydrophobic) compared to DBD-treated (hydrophilic) surfaces, with more polar functional groups oriented towards the upper surface in the latter case. The QCM-D data corroborates this finding, in that a more viscoelastic layer of Alb was formed on the DBD-treated surfaces relative to that on the pristine surfaces. It was also found that Alb was more easily replaced by larger proteins from foetal bovine serum on the DBD-treated surfaces. The viability of human lens epithelial cells on both of the DBD-treated polymer surface was significantly (P <0.05) greater than on the respective pristine surfaces. In addition, cells that adhered to the treated polymers exhibited a polygonal morphology with well spread actin stress fibres compared with the contracted shape displayed on the pristine surfaces. The results presented here clearly indicate that DBD surface modification has the capability to influence key protein and cell responses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2609-2620
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume6
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2010

Fingerprint

Atmospheric Pressure
Cell Adhesion
Atmospheric pressure
Albumins
Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Polymers
Adhesion
Polymethyl Methacrylate
Proteins
Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques
Polymethyl methacrylates
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Adsorption
Surface discharges
Fetal Proteins
Quartz crystal microbalances
Wettability
Stress Fibers
Surface chemistry
Styrene

Keywords

  • Atmospheric pressure surface modification
  • Surface analysis
  • Protein adsorption
  • Cell viability

Cite this

@article{2f0b8f68be324b70a60d776ffb420f84,
title = "Protein adhesion and cell response on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge-modified polymer surfaces",
abstract = "Gaseous plasma discharges are one of the most common means to modify the surface of a polymer without affecting its bulk properties. However, this normally requires the materials to be processed in vacuo to create the active species required to permanently modify the surface chemistry. The ability to invoke such changes under normal ambient conditions in a cost-effective manner has much to offer to enhance the response of medical implants in vivo. It is therefore important to accurately determine the nature and scale of the effects derived from this technology. This paper reports on the modification of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using atmospheric pressure plasma processing via exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The changes in surface chemistry and topography after DBD treatment were characterised using water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy. A marked increase in the surface oxygen concentration was observed for both PMMA and PS. An increase in surface roughness was observed for PMMA, but not for PS. These changes were found to result in an increase in surface wettability for both polymers. Adsorption of albumin (Alb) onto these substrates was studied using XPS and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The rate of adsorption of Alb onto pristine PMMA and PS was faster than that on the DBD-treated polymers. XPS indicated that a similar concentration of Alb occurred on both of the treated surfaces. Deconvolution of the C1s XPS spectra showed that Alb is adsorbed differently on pristine (hydrophobic) compared to DBD-treated (hydrophilic) surfaces, with more polar functional groups oriented towards the upper surface in the latter case. The QCM-D data corroborates this finding, in that a more viscoelastic layer of Alb was formed on the DBD-treated surfaces relative to that on the pristine surfaces. It was also found that Alb was more easily replaced by larger proteins from foetal bovine serum on the DBD-treated surfaces. The viability of human lens epithelial cells on both of the DBD-treated polymer surface was significantly (P <0.05) greater than on the respective pristine surfaces. In addition, cells that adhered to the treated polymers exhibited a polygonal morphology with well spread actin stress fibres compared with the contracted shape displayed on the pristine surfaces. The results presented here clearly indicate that DBD surface modification has the capability to influence key protein and cell responses.",
keywords = "Atmospheric pressure surface modification, Surface analysis, Protein adsorption, Cell viability",
author = "R D'Sa and GA Burke and BJ Meenan",
note = "Reference text: [1] Kasemo B. Biological surface science. Surf Sci 2002;500:656–77. [2] Hammer DA, Tirrell M. Biological ahesion at interfaces. Annu Rev Mater Sci 1996;26:651–91. [3] Wilson CJ, Clegg RE, Leavesley DI, Pearcy MJ. Mediation of biomaterial–cell interactions by adsorbed proteins: a review. Tissue Eng 2005;11:1–18. [4] Garcia AJ. Get a grip: integrins in cell–biomaterial interactions. Biomaterials 2005;26:7525–9. [5] Kato M, Mrksich M. Rewiring cell adhesion. J Am Chem Soc 2004;126:6504–5. [6] Dimilla PA, Albelda SM, Quinn JA. Adsorption and elution of extracellular matrix proteins on non-tissue culture polystyrene Petri dishes. J Colloid Interface Sci 1992;153:212–25. [7] Veiseh M, Turley EA, Bissell MJ. Top-down analysis of a dynamic environment: extracellular matrix structure and function. In: Laurencin CT, Nair L, editors. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2008. p. 33–52. [8] Hubbell JA. Surface treatment of polymers for biocompatibility. Annu Rev Mater Sci 1996;26:365–94. [9] Nath N, Hyun J, Ma H, Chilkoti A. Surface engineering strategies for control of protein and cell interactions. Surf Sci 2004;570:98–110. [10] Stevens MM, George JH. Exploring and engineering the cell surface interface. Science 2005;310:1135–8. [11] Chu PK, Chen JY, Wang LP, Huang N. Plasma-surface modification of biomaterials. Mater Sci Eng R 2002;36:143–206. [12] Upadhyay DJ, Cui N, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. Surface recovery and degradation of air dielectric barrier discharge processed poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ether ether ketone) films. Polym Degrad Stab 2005;87:33–41. [13] Liu C, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Statistical analysis of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating parameters on the surface processing of poly(methylmethacrylate) film. Surf Sci 2005;575:273–86. [14] Liu C, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) processing of PMMA surface: optimization of operational parameters. Surf Coat Technol 2006;201:2341–50. [15] Liu C, Meenan BJ. Effect of air plasma processing on the adsorption behaviour of bovine serum albumin on spin-coated PMMA surfaces. J Bionic Eng 2008;5:204–14. [16] Upadhyay DJ, Cui N, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. Surface oxygenation of polypropylene using an air dielectric barrier discharge: the effect of different electrode–platen combinations. Appl Surf Sci 2004;229:352–64. [17] Dorai R, Kushner MJ. A model for plasma modification of polypropylene using atmospheric pressure discharges. J Phys D Appl Phys 2003;36:666–85. [18] Kogelschatz U, Eliasson B, Egli W. From ozone generators to flat television screens: history and future potential of dielectric-barrier discharges. Pure Appl Chem 1999;71:1819–28. [19] Liu C, Cui N, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Effects of DBD plasma operating parameters on the polymer surface modification. Surf Coat Technol 2004;185:311–20. [20] Liu CZ, Wu JQ, Ren LQ, Tong J, Li JQ, Cui N, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Comparative study on the effect of RF and DBD plasma treatment on PTFE surface modification. Mater Chem Phys 2004;85:340–6. [21] Borcia G, Brown NMD, Dixon D, McIlhagger R. The effect of an air-dielectric barrier discharge on the surface properties and peel strength of medical packaging materials. Surf and Coat Technol 2004;179:70–7. [22] Okpalugo TIT, Papakonstantinou P, Murphy H, Mclaughlin J, Brown NMD. Oxidative functionalization of carbon nanotubes in atmospheric pressure filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD). Carbon 2005;43:2951–9. [23] Cui N, Upadhyay DJ, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. Study of the surface modification of a Nylon-6,6 film processed in an atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge. Surf Coat Technol 2005;192:94–100. [24] Upadhyay DJ, Cui NY, Meenan BJ, Brown NMD. The effect of dielectric barrier discharge configuration on the surface modification of aromatic polymers. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2005;38:922–9. [25] Liu C, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Uniformity analysis of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) processed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. Appl Surf Sci 2006;252:2297–310. [26] Chastain J, editor. Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Minnesota: Perkin-Elmer Corporation; 1992. [27] Wertz CF, Santore MM. Adsorption and relaxation kinetics of albumin and fibrinogen on hydrophobic surfaces: single-species and competitive behaviour. Langmuir 1999;15:8884–94. [28] Borcia G, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. The surface oxidation of selected polymers using an atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge. Part II. Appl Surf Sci 2004;225:186–97. [29] Borcia G, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. Dielectric barrier discharge for surface treatment: application to selected polymers in film and fibre form. Plasma Sources Sci Technol 2003;12:335–44. [30] Wenzel RN. Surface roughness and contact angle. J Phys Coll Chem 1949;53:1466–7. [31] Roach P, Farrar D, Perry CC. Interpretation of protein adsorption: surfaceinduced conformational changes. J Am Chem Soc 2005;127:8168–73. [32] Fraaije JGEM, Murris RM, Norde W, Lyklema J. Interfacial thermodynamics of protein adsorption, ion co-adsorption and ion binding in solution: I. Phenomenological linkage relations for ion exchange in lysozyme chromatography and titration in solution. Biophys Chem 1991;40:303–15. [33] Fraaije JGEM, Norde W, Lyklema J. Interfacial thermodynamics of protein adsorption, ion co-adsorption and ion binding in solution: II. Model interpretation of ion exchange in lysozyme chromatography. Biophys Chem 1991;40:317–27. [34] Fraaije JGEM, Norde W, Lyklema J. Interfacial thermodynamics of protein adsorption and ion co-adsorption. III. Electrochemistry of bovine serum albumin adsorption on silver iodide. Biophys Chem 1991;41:263–76. [35] Norde W. Adsorption of proteins at solid–liquid interfaces. Cell Mater 1995;5:97–112. [36] Norde W. The behavior of proteins at interfaces, with special attention to the role of the structure stability of the protein molecule. Clin Mater 1992;11:85–91. [37] Norde W, Lyklema J. Protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion to solid surfaces: A colloid-chemical approach. Colloids Surf 1989;38:1–13. [38] Norde W, MacRitchie F, Nowicka G, Lyklema J. Protein adsorption at solid– liquid interfaces: Reversibility and conformation aspects. J Colloid Interface Sci 1986;112:447–56. [39] Norde W, Lyklema J. Why proteins prefer interfaces. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 1991;2:183–202. [40] Fabrizius-Homan DJ, Cooper SL. Competitive adsorption of vitronectin with albumin, fibrinogen, and fibronectin on polymeric biomaterials. J Biomed Mater Res 1991;25:953–71. [41] Andrade JD, Hlady V. Vroman effects, techniques, and philosophies. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 1991;2:161–72. 12 R.A. D’Sa et al. / Acta Biomaterialia xxx (2010) xxx–xxx ARTICLE IN PRESS Please",
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Protein adhesion and cell response on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge-modified polymer surfaces. / D'Sa, R; Burke, GA; Meenan, BJ.

In: Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 6, No. 7, 21.01.2010, p. 2609-2620.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Protein adhesion and cell response on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge-modified polymer surfaces

AU - D'Sa, R

AU - Burke, GA

AU - Meenan, BJ

N1 - Reference text: [1] Kasemo B. Biological surface science. Surf Sci 2002;500:656–77. [2] Hammer DA, Tirrell M. Biological ahesion at interfaces. Annu Rev Mater Sci 1996;26:651–91. [3] Wilson CJ, Clegg RE, Leavesley DI, Pearcy MJ. Mediation of biomaterial–cell interactions by adsorbed proteins: a review. Tissue Eng 2005;11:1–18. [4] Garcia AJ. Get a grip: integrins in cell–biomaterial interactions. Biomaterials 2005;26:7525–9. [5] Kato M, Mrksich M. Rewiring cell adhesion. J Am Chem Soc 2004;126:6504–5. [6] Dimilla PA, Albelda SM, Quinn JA. Adsorption and elution of extracellular matrix proteins on non-tissue culture polystyrene Petri dishes. J Colloid Interface Sci 1992;153:212–25. [7] Veiseh M, Turley EA, Bissell MJ. Top-down analysis of a dynamic environment: extracellular matrix structure and function. In: Laurencin CT, Nair L, editors. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2008. p. 33–52. [8] Hubbell JA. Surface treatment of polymers for biocompatibility. Annu Rev Mater Sci 1996;26:365–94. [9] Nath N, Hyun J, Ma H, Chilkoti A. Surface engineering strategies for control of protein and cell interactions. Surf Sci 2004;570:98–110. [10] Stevens MM, George JH. Exploring and engineering the cell surface interface. Science 2005;310:1135–8. [11] Chu PK, Chen JY, Wang LP, Huang N. Plasma-surface modification of biomaterials. Mater Sci Eng R 2002;36:143–206. [12] Upadhyay DJ, Cui N, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. Surface recovery and degradation of air dielectric barrier discharge processed poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ether ether ketone) films. Polym Degrad Stab 2005;87:33–41. [13] Liu C, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Statistical analysis of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating parameters on the surface processing of poly(methylmethacrylate) film. Surf Sci 2005;575:273–86. [14] Liu C, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) processing of PMMA surface: optimization of operational parameters. Surf Coat Technol 2006;201:2341–50. [15] Liu C, Meenan BJ. Effect of air plasma processing on the adsorption behaviour of bovine serum albumin on spin-coated PMMA surfaces. J Bionic Eng 2008;5:204–14. [16] Upadhyay DJ, Cui N, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. Surface oxygenation of polypropylene using an air dielectric barrier discharge: the effect of different electrode–platen combinations. Appl Surf Sci 2004;229:352–64. [17] Dorai R, Kushner MJ. A model for plasma modification of polypropylene using atmospheric pressure discharges. J Phys D Appl Phys 2003;36:666–85. [18] Kogelschatz U, Eliasson B, Egli W. From ozone generators to flat television screens: history and future potential of dielectric-barrier discharges. Pure Appl Chem 1999;71:1819–28. [19] Liu C, Cui N, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Effects of DBD plasma operating parameters on the polymer surface modification. Surf Coat Technol 2004;185:311–20. [20] Liu CZ, Wu JQ, Ren LQ, Tong J, Li JQ, Cui N, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Comparative study on the effect of RF and DBD plasma treatment on PTFE surface modification. Mater Chem Phys 2004;85:340–6. [21] Borcia G, Brown NMD, Dixon D, McIlhagger R. The effect of an air-dielectric barrier discharge on the surface properties and peel strength of medical packaging materials. Surf and Coat Technol 2004;179:70–7. [22] Okpalugo TIT, Papakonstantinou P, Murphy H, Mclaughlin J, Brown NMD. Oxidative functionalization of carbon nanotubes in atmospheric pressure filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD). Carbon 2005;43:2951–9. [23] Cui N, Upadhyay DJ, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. Study of the surface modification of a Nylon-6,6 film processed in an atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge. Surf Coat Technol 2005;192:94–100. [24] Upadhyay DJ, Cui NY, Meenan BJ, Brown NMD. The effect of dielectric barrier discharge configuration on the surface modification of aromatic polymers. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2005;38:922–9. [25] Liu C, Brown NMD, Meenan BJ. Uniformity analysis of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) processed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. Appl Surf Sci 2006;252:2297–310. [26] Chastain J, editor. Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Minnesota: Perkin-Elmer Corporation; 1992. [27] Wertz CF, Santore MM. Adsorption and relaxation kinetics of albumin and fibrinogen on hydrophobic surfaces: single-species and competitive behaviour. Langmuir 1999;15:8884–94. [28] Borcia G, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. The surface oxidation of selected polymers using an atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge. Part II. Appl Surf Sci 2004;225:186–97. [29] Borcia G, Anderson CA, Brown NMD. Dielectric barrier discharge for surface treatment: application to selected polymers in film and fibre form. Plasma Sources Sci Technol 2003;12:335–44. [30] Wenzel RN. Surface roughness and contact angle. J Phys Coll Chem 1949;53:1466–7. [31] Roach P, Farrar D, Perry CC. Interpretation of protein adsorption: surfaceinduced conformational changes. J Am Chem Soc 2005;127:8168–73. [32] Fraaije JGEM, Murris RM, Norde W, Lyklema J. Interfacial thermodynamics of protein adsorption, ion co-adsorption and ion binding in solution: I. Phenomenological linkage relations for ion exchange in lysozyme chromatography and titration in solution. Biophys Chem 1991;40:303–15. [33] Fraaije JGEM, Norde W, Lyklema J. Interfacial thermodynamics of protein adsorption, ion co-adsorption and ion binding in solution: II. Model interpretation of ion exchange in lysozyme chromatography. Biophys Chem 1991;40:317–27. [34] Fraaije JGEM, Norde W, Lyklema J. Interfacial thermodynamics of protein adsorption and ion co-adsorption. III. Electrochemistry of bovine serum albumin adsorption on silver iodide. Biophys Chem 1991;41:263–76. [35] Norde W. Adsorption of proteins at solid–liquid interfaces. Cell Mater 1995;5:97–112. [36] Norde W. The behavior of proteins at interfaces, with special attention to the role of the structure stability of the protein molecule. Clin Mater 1992;11:85–91. [37] Norde W, Lyklema J. Protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion to solid surfaces: A colloid-chemical approach. Colloids Surf 1989;38:1–13. [38] Norde W, MacRitchie F, Nowicka G, Lyklema J. Protein adsorption at solid– liquid interfaces: Reversibility and conformation aspects. J Colloid Interface Sci 1986;112:447–56. [39] Norde W, Lyklema J. Why proteins prefer interfaces. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 1991;2:183–202. [40] Fabrizius-Homan DJ, Cooper SL. Competitive adsorption of vitronectin with albumin, fibrinogen, and fibronectin on polymeric biomaterials. J Biomed Mater Res 1991;25:953–71. [41] Andrade JD, Hlady V. Vroman effects, techniques, and philosophies. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 1991;2:161–72. 12 R.A. D’Sa et al. / Acta Biomaterialia xxx (2010) xxx–xxx ARTICLE IN PRESS Please

PY - 2010/1/21

Y1 - 2010/1/21

N2 - Gaseous plasma discharges are one of the most common means to modify the surface of a polymer without affecting its bulk properties. However, this normally requires the materials to be processed in vacuo to create the active species required to permanently modify the surface chemistry. The ability to invoke such changes under normal ambient conditions in a cost-effective manner has much to offer to enhance the response of medical implants in vivo. It is therefore important to accurately determine the nature and scale of the effects derived from this technology. This paper reports on the modification of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using atmospheric pressure plasma processing via exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The changes in surface chemistry and topography after DBD treatment were characterised using water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy. A marked increase in the surface oxygen concentration was observed for both PMMA and PS. An increase in surface roughness was observed for PMMA, but not for PS. These changes were found to result in an increase in surface wettability for both polymers. Adsorption of albumin (Alb) onto these substrates was studied using XPS and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The rate of adsorption of Alb onto pristine PMMA and PS was faster than that on the DBD-treated polymers. XPS indicated that a similar concentration of Alb occurred on both of the treated surfaces. Deconvolution of the C1s XPS spectra showed that Alb is adsorbed differently on pristine (hydrophobic) compared to DBD-treated (hydrophilic) surfaces, with more polar functional groups oriented towards the upper surface in the latter case. The QCM-D data corroborates this finding, in that a more viscoelastic layer of Alb was formed on the DBD-treated surfaces relative to that on the pristine surfaces. It was also found that Alb was more easily replaced by larger proteins from foetal bovine serum on the DBD-treated surfaces. The viability of human lens epithelial cells on both of the DBD-treated polymer surface was significantly (P <0.05) greater than on the respective pristine surfaces. In addition, cells that adhered to the treated polymers exhibited a polygonal morphology with well spread actin stress fibres compared with the contracted shape displayed on the pristine surfaces. The results presented here clearly indicate that DBD surface modification has the capability to influence key protein and cell responses.

AB - Gaseous plasma discharges are one of the most common means to modify the surface of a polymer without affecting its bulk properties. However, this normally requires the materials to be processed in vacuo to create the active species required to permanently modify the surface chemistry. The ability to invoke such changes under normal ambient conditions in a cost-effective manner has much to offer to enhance the response of medical implants in vivo. It is therefore important to accurately determine the nature and scale of the effects derived from this technology. This paper reports on the modification of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using atmospheric pressure plasma processing via exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The changes in surface chemistry and topography after DBD treatment were characterised using water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy. A marked increase in the surface oxygen concentration was observed for both PMMA and PS. An increase in surface roughness was observed for PMMA, but not for PS. These changes were found to result in an increase in surface wettability for both polymers. Adsorption of albumin (Alb) onto these substrates was studied using XPS and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The rate of adsorption of Alb onto pristine PMMA and PS was faster than that on the DBD-treated polymers. XPS indicated that a similar concentration of Alb occurred on both of the treated surfaces. Deconvolution of the C1s XPS spectra showed that Alb is adsorbed differently on pristine (hydrophobic) compared to DBD-treated (hydrophilic) surfaces, with more polar functional groups oriented towards the upper surface in the latter case. The QCM-D data corroborates this finding, in that a more viscoelastic layer of Alb was formed on the DBD-treated surfaces relative to that on the pristine surfaces. It was also found that Alb was more easily replaced by larger proteins from foetal bovine serum on the DBD-treated surfaces. The viability of human lens epithelial cells on both of the DBD-treated polymer surface was significantly (P <0.05) greater than on the respective pristine surfaces. In addition, cells that adhered to the treated polymers exhibited a polygonal morphology with well spread actin stress fibres compared with the contracted shape displayed on the pristine surfaces. The results presented here clearly indicate that DBD surface modification has the capability to influence key protein and cell responses.

KW - Atmospheric pressure surface modification

KW - Surface analysis

KW - Protein adsorption

KW - Cell viability

U2 - 10.1016/j.actbio.2010.01.015

DO - 10.1016/j.actbio.2010.01.015

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 2609

EP - 2620

JO - Acta Biomaterialia

JF - Acta Biomaterialia

SN - 1742-7061

IS - 7

ER -