Process Mining IPTV Customer Eye Gaze Movement Using Discrete-time Markov Chains

Zhi Chen, Shuai Zhang, Sally I McClean, Fionnuala Hart, Michael Milliken, Brahim Allan, Ian Kegel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research has extensively employed eye-tracking technologies in a variety of fields. Meanwhile, the ongoing development of Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) has significantly enriched the TV customer experience, which is of great interest to researchers across academia and industry. A previous study was carried out at the BT Ireland Innovation Centre (BTIIC), where an eye tracker was employed to record user interactions with a Video-on-Demand (VoD) application, the BT Player. This paper is a complementary and subsequent study of the analysis of eye-tracking data in our previously published introductory paper. Here, we propose a method for integrating layout information from the BT Player with mining the process of customer eye movement on the screen, thereby generating HCI and Industry-relevant insights regarding user experience. We incorporate a popular Machine Learning model, a discrete-time Markov Chain (DTMC), into our methodology, as the eye tracker records each gaze movement at a particular frequency, which is a good example of discrete-time sequences. The Markov Model is found suitable for our study, and it helps to reveal characteristics of the gaze movement as well as the user interface (UI) design on the VoD application by interpreting transition matrices, first passage time, proposed ‘most likely trajectory’ and other Markov properties of the model. Additionally, the study has revealed numerous promising areas for future research. And the code involved in this study is open access on GitHub.
Original languageEnglish
Article number82
Pages (from-to)1-33
Number of pages34
Issue number2
Early online date2 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 2 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is supported by BTIIC (the BT Ireland Innovation Centre), funded by BT and Invest Northern Ireland.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Eye tracking
  • HCI
  • Discrete-time Markov chains
  • process mining
  • TV customer experience
  • IPTV
  • machine learning
  • Java
  • R
  • eye tracking
  • discrete-time markov chains
  • statistical analysis


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