Biological, social, and psychological practices greatly affect the dietary intake of people; as a result, health-related complexities occur. Functional food and supplements have become popular due to their nutraceutical benefits, which make different choices of fermented food and beverages available to people. This review describes the characteristics of probiotics, prebiotics, post- and paraprobiotics, and their role in nutrition and in the sustainability of health. Currently, several synbiotic supplements have attracted consumers in the nutraceutical market to offer a number of health benefits, which are complementary mixtures of selected characterized probiotic cultures and prebiotic substrates. Traditional fermented foods consumed in different cultures are different than probiotics and symbiotic preparations, though these could be considered potential biotics in nutrition. Fermented foods are part of a staple diet in several countries and are cost-effective due to their preparation using seasonal raw materials available from local agriculture practices. Intake of all biotics discussed in this article is intended to improve the population of beneficial microbiota in the gut, which has proved important for the microbiome–gut–brain axis, influencing the activity of vagus nerve.
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