Principal Component analysis of the geochemistry of soil developed on till in Northern Ireland

M Dempster, P Dunlop, A.J. Scheib, M Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents results from the first statistical analysis of soils developed on till in Northern Ireland using the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland Tellus regional geochemical database. Till geochemistry is largely determined by its parent bedrock and soils developed on tills are known to inherit this geochemical signature. Soil geochemistry from areas of till can therefore be used to establish sediment provenance which in turn provides information on palaeo ice flow and ice sheet history. In this study we use Principal Component Analysis to establish geochemical groupings that can be related back to likely bedrock parent material for the tills in the region. The maps, presented here at 1:445,000 scale, show the results of the first regional investigation of soil geochemistry of part of the northern sector of the Irish Ice Sheet. The results indicate that the upper surface of the majority of tills in the study area have a close relationship to local bedrock with rapid geochemical changes observed at lithological boundaries. This suggests that tills in this sector of the Irish Ice Sheet are primarily local in origin, indicating rapid entrainment of bedrock and low rates of evacuation of debris to the ice margin
LanguageEnglish
Pages1-17
JournalJournal of Maps
Volume2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2013

Fingerprint

bedrock
principal component analysis
geochemistry
ice sheet
soil
ice margin
ice flow
parent material
entrainment
geological survey
provenance
statistical analysis
history
sediment

Keywords

  • Geochemistry
  • Tellus
  • soil
  • till
  • British Irish Ice Sheet

Cite this

@article{14591d15d53c45eaabb4dca3c0a8112a,
title = "Principal Component analysis of the geochemistry of soil developed on till in Northern Ireland",
abstract = "This paper presents results from the first statistical analysis of soils developed on till in Northern Ireland using the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland Tellus regional geochemical database. Till geochemistry is largely determined by its parent bedrock and soils developed on tills are known to inherit this geochemical signature. Soil geochemistry from areas of till can therefore be used to establish sediment provenance which in turn provides information on palaeo ice flow and ice sheet history. In this study we use Principal Component Analysis to establish geochemical groupings that can be related back to likely bedrock parent material for the tills in the region. The maps, presented here at 1:445,000 scale, show the results of the first regional investigation of soil geochemistry of part of the northern sector of the Irish Ice Sheet. The results indicate that the upper surface of the majority of tills in the study area have a close relationship to local bedrock with rapid geochemical changes observed at lithological boundaries. This suggests that tills in this sector of the Irish Ice Sheet are primarily local in origin, indicating rapid entrainment of bedrock and low rates of evacuation of debris to the ice margin",
keywords = "Geochemistry, Tellus, soil, till, British Irish Ice Sheet",
author = "M Dempster and P Dunlop and A.J. Scheib and M Cooper",
note = "Reference text: Aario, R. & Peuraniemi, V. (1992) Glacial dispersal of till constituents in morainic landforms of different types. Geomorphology, 6(1), 9-25. doi:10.1016/0169-555X(92)90044-O Anderson, T. B. (2004). Chapter 4, Southern Uplands-Down-Longford Terrane. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.)(Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 41-60. Boston, C.M., Evans, D.J.A., {\'O}'Cofaigh, C. (2010) Styles of till deposition at the margin of the Last Glacial Maximum North Sea lobe of the British–Irish Ice Sheet: an assessment based on geochemical properties of glacigenic deposits in eastern England. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(23–24), 3184-3211. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.05.028 Boulton, G.S., Clark, C.D. (1990) The Laurentide Ice Sheet through the last glacial cycle: the topology of drift lineations as a key to the dynamic behaviour of former ice sheets. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 81(4), 327-347. doi:10.1017/S0263593300020836 Boulton, G.S., Dongelmans, P., Punkari, M., Broadgate, M. (2001) Palaeoglaciology of an ice sheet through a glacial cycle:: the European ice sheet through the Weichselian. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20(4), 591-625. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(00)00160-8 Broecker, W.S. (1994) Massive Iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature, 372, 421-424. doi:10.1038/372421a0 Burek, C., Cubitt, J.M. (1991) {"}Geochemical properties of glacial deposits in the British Isles.{"} in Glacial Deposits in Britain and Ireland., eds. J. Ehlers, P.L. Gibbard & J. Rose, 1st edn, A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 471-492. Cheng, Q., Jing, L., Panahi, A. (2006) Principal Component Analysis with optimum order sample correlation coefficient for image enhancement. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27(16), 3387-3401. doi:10.1080/01431160600606882 Clark, C.D., Knight, J.K., T. Gray, J. (2000) Geomorphological reconstruction of the Labrador Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19(13), 1343-1366. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00098-0 Cooper, M.R., Johnston, T.P. (2004a) Chapter 2, Central Highlands (Grampian) Terrane – Metamorphic Basement. In:The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 9-24. Cooper, M.R., Johnston, T.P. (2004b) Chapter 5, Late Palaeozoic Intrusives. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 61-68. Cooper, M.R. (2004) Chapter 14, Palaeogene Extrusive Igneous Rocks. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 167-178. Cooper, M.R., Johnston, T.P. (2004c) Chapter 15, Palaeogene Intrusive Igneous Rocks. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 179-198. Cooper, M. R., Crowley, Q. G., Hollis, S. P., Noble, S. R., Roberts, S., Chew, D. M., Merriman, R. J., Earls, G. & Herrington, R. (2011) Age constraints and geochemistry of the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland: implications for the Grampian orogeny. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168; p. 837-850. doi: 10.1144/0016-76492010-164. Cooper, M. R., Anderson, H., Walsh, J. J., van Dam, C. L., Young, M. E., Earls, G., Walker, A. (2012) Palaeogene Alpine tectonics and Icelandic plume-related magmatism and deformation in Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, London 169; p. 29-36. doi: 10.1144/0016-76492010-182. Dunlop, P., Clark, C.D. (2006) The morphological characteristics of ribbed moraine. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25(13-14), 1668-1691. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.01.002 Greenwood, S.L., Clark, C.D. (2008) Subglacial bedforms of the Irish Ice Sheet. Journal of Maps, v2008, 332-357. Greenwood, S.L., Clark, C.D. (2009) Reconstructing the Irish Ice Sheet 1: changing flow geometries and ice flow dynamics deciphered from the glacial landform record. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (27-28), 3085-3100. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.09.008 Greenwood, S.L., Kleman, J. (2010) Glacial landforms of extreme size in the Keewatin sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(15-16), 1894-1910. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.04.010 Grunsky, E.C., Smee, B.W. (1999) The differentiation of soil types and mineralization from multi-element geochemistry using multivariate methods and digital topography. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 67(1-3), 287-299. doi:10.1016/S0375-6742(99)00054-0 GSNI (1997) Geological Map of Northern Ireland (Solid), 1:250,000 , Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. ISBN 0751831662 GSNI (1991) Geological Map of Northern Ireland (Quaternary), 1:250,000, Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. ISBN 0751827630 Johnson, C.C., Breward, N., Ander, E.L., Ault, L. (2005) G-BASE: baseline geochemical mapping of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 5, 347-357. doi:10.1144/1467-7873/05-070 Kauranne, L.K. (1958) On prospecting for molybdenum on the basis of its dispersion in glacial till. Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland, 180, 31-43. Klassen, R.A. 2001, {"}A Quaternary geological perspective on geochemical exploration in glaciated terrain{"} in Drift Exploration in Glaciated Terrain, Geological Society of London Special Publication 185. eds. M.B. McClenaghan, P.T. Bobrowsky, G.E.M. Hall & S.J. Cook, 1st edn, Geological Society of London, London, pp. 1-17. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.185.01.01 Klassen, R.A., Thompson, F.J. 1993, Glacial history, Drift Composition and Mineral Exploration, Central Labrador., Geological Survey of Canada., Toronto. Kleman, J., Borgstr{\"o}m, I. (1996) Reconstruction of Palaeo-Ice Sheets: the use of geomorphological data. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 21(10), 893-909. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199610)21:10<893::AID-ESP620>3.3.CO;2-L McCabe, A.M., Clark, P.U. (1998) Ice-sheet variability around the North Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation. Nature, 392, 373-377. doi:10.1038/32866 McClenaghan, M.B., Thorleifson, L.H., DiLabio, R.N.W. (2000) Till geochemical and indicator mineral methods in mineral exploration. Ore Geology Reviews, 16(3-4), 145-166. doi:10.1016/S0169-1368(99)00028-1 McQueen, K.G., Scott, K.M. 2008, {"}Rock weathering and structure of regolith.{"} in Regolith Science, eds. K.M. Scott & C.F. Pain, 1st edn, CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia, pp. 105-126. Mitchell, W.I.(ed). (2004) The Geology of Northern Ireland - Our Natural Foundation. Second edn, Belfast: Geological Survey of Northern Ireland. Mitchell, W.I. 2004a. Chapter 6, Devonian. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 69-78. Mitchell, W.I. 2004b. Chapter 7, Carboniferous. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 79-116. Mitchell, W.I. 2004c. Chapter 10, Triassic. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 133-144. Mitchell, W.I. 2004d. Chapter 11, Jurassic. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 145-148. Mitchell, W.I. 2004e. Chapter 12, Cretaceous. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 149-160. Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M. (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, 299, 715-717. doi:10.1038/299715a0 Parent, M., Paradis, S.J., Doiron, A. (1996) Palimpsest glacial dispersal trains and their significance for drift prospecting. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 56(2), 123-140. doi:10.1016/0375-6742(96)00011-8 Peuraniemi, V., Aario, R., Pulkkinen, P. (1997) Mineralogy and geochemistry of the clay fraction of till in northern Finland. Sedimentary Geology, 111(1-4), 313-327. doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(97)00023-7 Pison, G., Rousseeuw, P.J., Filzmoser, P., Croux, C. (2003) Robust factor analysis. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 84(1), 145-172. doi:10.1016/S0047-259X(02)00007-6 Punkari, M. (1997) Glacial and glaciofluvial deposits in the interlobate areas of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 16(7), 741-753. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(97)00020-6 Reimann, C., Filzmoser, P., Garrett, R.G., Dutter, R. (2008) Statistical Data Analysis Explained. 1st edn, Chichester, UK.: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Sarala, P. (2006) Ribbed moraine stratigraphy and formation in southern Finnish Lapland. Journal of Quaternary Science, 21(4), 387-398. doi:10.1002/jqs.995 Sarala, P., Rossi, S., Peuraniemi, V., Ojala, V.J. (2007) Distinguishing glacigenic deposits in southern Finnish Lapland: implications for exploration. Applied Earth Science, 116(1), 22-36. doi:10.1179/174327507X167019 Scheib, A.J., Dunlop, P. & Cooper, M.R. (2010), Investigating glacial sediment provenance in Northern Ireland using Principal Component Analysis of Tellus soil geochemical data., British Geological Survey, Keyworth. Scheib, A.J., Lee, J.R. (2010) The application of regional geochemical data in defining the extent of aeolian sediments: Late Pleistocene loess and coversand deposits of East Anglia, UK. Quaternary Newsletter, (120), 5-14. Scheib, A.J., Lee, J.R., Breward, N., Riding, J.B. (2011) Reconstructing flow paths of the Middle Pleistocene British Ice Sheet in central-eastern England: the application of regional soil geochemical data. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 122(3), 432-444. doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2011.01.008 Smyth, D. 2007, Methods used in the Tellus Geochemical Mapping of Northern Ireland. British Geological Survey Open Report, OR/07/022., British Geological Survey, Keyworth, England. Spagnolo, M., Clark, C.D., Hughes, A.L.C., Dunlop, P., Stokes, C.R. (2010) The planar shape of drumlins. Sedimentary Geology, 232(3–4), 119-129. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.01.008 Veillette, J.J. (2004) Ice Flow chronology and palimpsest; long distance dispersal of indicator clasts north of the St. Lawrence River valley, Quebec. Geographie physique et Quaternaire., 58(2-3), 187-216. doi:10.7202/013138ar",
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doi = "10.1080/17445647.2013.789414",
language = "English",
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Principal Component analysis of the geochemistry of soil developed on till in Northern Ireland. / Dempster, M; Dunlop, P; Scheib, A.J.; Cooper, M.

In: Journal of Maps, Vol. 2013, 11.04.2013, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Principal Component analysis of the geochemistry of soil developed on till in Northern Ireland

AU - Dempster, M

AU - Dunlop, P

AU - Scheib, A.J.

AU - Cooper, M

N1 - Reference text: Aario, R. & Peuraniemi, V. (1992) Glacial dispersal of till constituents in morainic landforms of different types. Geomorphology, 6(1), 9-25. doi:10.1016/0169-555X(92)90044-O Anderson, T. B. (2004). Chapter 4, Southern Uplands-Down-Longford Terrane. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.)(Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 41-60. Boston, C.M., Evans, D.J.A., Ó'Cofaigh, C. (2010) Styles of till deposition at the margin of the Last Glacial Maximum North Sea lobe of the British–Irish Ice Sheet: an assessment based on geochemical properties of glacigenic deposits in eastern England. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(23–24), 3184-3211. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.05.028 Boulton, G.S., Clark, C.D. (1990) The Laurentide Ice Sheet through the last glacial cycle: the topology of drift lineations as a key to the dynamic behaviour of former ice sheets. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 81(4), 327-347. doi:10.1017/S0263593300020836 Boulton, G.S., Dongelmans, P., Punkari, M., Broadgate, M. (2001) Palaeoglaciology of an ice sheet through a glacial cycle:: the European ice sheet through the Weichselian. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20(4), 591-625. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(00)00160-8 Broecker, W.S. (1994) Massive Iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature, 372, 421-424. doi:10.1038/372421a0 Burek, C., Cubitt, J.M. (1991) "Geochemical properties of glacial deposits in the British Isles." in Glacial Deposits in Britain and Ireland., eds. J. Ehlers, P.L. Gibbard & J. Rose, 1st edn, A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 471-492. Cheng, Q., Jing, L., Panahi, A. (2006) Principal Component Analysis with optimum order sample correlation coefficient for image enhancement. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27(16), 3387-3401. doi:10.1080/01431160600606882 Clark, C.D., Knight, J.K., T. Gray, J. (2000) Geomorphological reconstruction of the Labrador Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19(13), 1343-1366. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00098-0 Cooper, M.R., Johnston, T.P. (2004a) Chapter 2, Central Highlands (Grampian) Terrane – Metamorphic Basement. In:The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 9-24. Cooper, M.R., Johnston, T.P. (2004b) Chapter 5, Late Palaeozoic Intrusives. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 61-68. Cooper, M.R. (2004) Chapter 14, Palaeogene Extrusive Igneous Rocks. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 167-178. Cooper, M.R., Johnston, T.P. (2004c) Chapter 15, Palaeogene Intrusive Igneous Rocks. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 179-198. Cooper, M. R., Crowley, Q. G., Hollis, S. P., Noble, S. R., Roberts, S., Chew, D. M., Merriman, R. J., Earls, G. & Herrington, R. (2011) Age constraints and geochemistry of the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland: implications for the Grampian orogeny. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168; p. 837-850. doi: 10.1144/0016-76492010-164. Cooper, M. R., Anderson, H., Walsh, J. J., van Dam, C. L., Young, M. E., Earls, G., Walker, A. (2012) Palaeogene Alpine tectonics and Icelandic plume-related magmatism and deformation in Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, London 169; p. 29-36. doi: 10.1144/0016-76492010-182. Dunlop, P., Clark, C.D. (2006) The morphological characteristics of ribbed moraine. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25(13-14), 1668-1691. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.01.002 Greenwood, S.L., Clark, C.D. (2008) Subglacial bedforms of the Irish Ice Sheet. Journal of Maps, v2008, 332-357. Greenwood, S.L., Clark, C.D. (2009) Reconstructing the Irish Ice Sheet 1: changing flow geometries and ice flow dynamics deciphered from the glacial landform record. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (27-28), 3085-3100. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.09.008 Greenwood, S.L., Kleman, J. (2010) Glacial landforms of extreme size in the Keewatin sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(15-16), 1894-1910. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.04.010 Grunsky, E.C., Smee, B.W. (1999) The differentiation of soil types and mineralization from multi-element geochemistry using multivariate methods and digital topography. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 67(1-3), 287-299. doi:10.1016/S0375-6742(99)00054-0 GSNI (1997) Geological Map of Northern Ireland (Solid), 1:250,000 , Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. ISBN 0751831662 GSNI (1991) Geological Map of Northern Ireland (Quaternary), 1:250,000, Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. ISBN 0751827630 Johnson, C.C., Breward, N., Ander, E.L., Ault, L. (2005) G-BASE: baseline geochemical mapping of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 5, 347-357. doi:10.1144/1467-7873/05-070 Kauranne, L.K. (1958) On prospecting for molybdenum on the basis of its dispersion in glacial till. Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland, 180, 31-43. Klassen, R.A. 2001, "A Quaternary geological perspective on geochemical exploration in glaciated terrain" in Drift Exploration in Glaciated Terrain, Geological Society of London Special Publication 185. eds. M.B. McClenaghan, P.T. Bobrowsky, G.E.M. Hall & S.J. Cook, 1st edn, Geological Society of London, London, pp. 1-17. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.185.01.01 Klassen, R.A., Thompson, F.J. 1993, Glacial history, Drift Composition and Mineral Exploration, Central Labrador., Geological Survey of Canada., Toronto. Kleman, J., Borgström, I. (1996) Reconstruction of Palaeo-Ice Sheets: the use of geomorphological data. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 21(10), 893-909. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199610)21:10<893::AID-ESP620>3.3.CO;2-L McCabe, A.M., Clark, P.U. (1998) Ice-sheet variability around the North Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation. Nature, 392, 373-377. doi:10.1038/32866 McClenaghan, M.B., Thorleifson, L.H., DiLabio, R.N.W. (2000) Till geochemical and indicator mineral methods in mineral exploration. Ore Geology Reviews, 16(3-4), 145-166. doi:10.1016/S0169-1368(99)00028-1 McQueen, K.G., Scott, K.M. 2008, "Rock weathering and structure of regolith." in Regolith Science, eds. K.M. Scott & C.F. Pain, 1st edn, CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia, pp. 105-126. Mitchell, W.I.(ed). (2004) The Geology of Northern Ireland - Our Natural Foundation. Second edn, Belfast: Geological Survey of Northern Ireland. Mitchell, W.I. 2004a. Chapter 6, Devonian. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 69-78. Mitchell, W.I. 2004b. Chapter 7, Carboniferous. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 79-116. Mitchell, W.I. 2004c. Chapter 10, Triassic. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 133-144. Mitchell, W.I. 2004d. Chapter 11, Jurassic. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 145-148. Mitchell, W.I. 2004e. Chapter 12, Cretaceous. In: The Geology of Northern Ireland – Our Natural Foundation. Mitchell, W. I. (ed.). (Second Edition), Geological Survey of Northern Ireland, Belfast. 149-160. Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M. (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, 299, 715-717. doi:10.1038/299715a0 Parent, M., Paradis, S.J., Doiron, A. (1996) Palimpsest glacial dispersal trains and their significance for drift prospecting. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 56(2), 123-140. doi:10.1016/0375-6742(96)00011-8 Peuraniemi, V., Aario, R., Pulkkinen, P. (1997) Mineralogy and geochemistry of the clay fraction of till in northern Finland. Sedimentary Geology, 111(1-4), 313-327. doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(97)00023-7 Pison, G., Rousseeuw, P.J., Filzmoser, P., Croux, C. (2003) Robust factor analysis. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 84(1), 145-172. doi:10.1016/S0047-259X(02)00007-6 Punkari, M. (1997) Glacial and glaciofluvial deposits in the interlobate areas of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 16(7), 741-753. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(97)00020-6 Reimann, C., Filzmoser, P., Garrett, R.G., Dutter, R. (2008) Statistical Data Analysis Explained. 1st edn, Chichester, UK.: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Sarala, P. (2006) Ribbed moraine stratigraphy and formation in southern Finnish Lapland. Journal of Quaternary Science, 21(4), 387-398. doi:10.1002/jqs.995 Sarala, P., Rossi, S., Peuraniemi, V., Ojala, V.J. (2007) Distinguishing glacigenic deposits in southern Finnish Lapland: implications for exploration. Applied Earth Science, 116(1), 22-36. doi:10.1179/174327507X167019 Scheib, A.J., Dunlop, P. & Cooper, M.R. (2010), Investigating glacial sediment provenance in Northern Ireland using Principal Component Analysis of Tellus soil geochemical data., British Geological Survey, Keyworth. Scheib, A.J., Lee, J.R. (2010) The application of regional geochemical data in defining the extent of aeolian sediments: Late Pleistocene loess and coversand deposits of East Anglia, UK. Quaternary Newsletter, (120), 5-14. Scheib, A.J., Lee, J.R., Breward, N., Riding, J.B. (2011) Reconstructing flow paths of the Middle Pleistocene British Ice Sheet in central-eastern England: the application of regional soil geochemical data. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 122(3), 432-444. doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2011.01.008 Smyth, D. 2007, Methods used in the Tellus Geochemical Mapping of Northern Ireland. British Geological Survey Open Report, OR/07/022., British Geological Survey, Keyworth, England. Spagnolo, M., Clark, C.D., Hughes, A.L.C., Dunlop, P., Stokes, C.R. (2010) The planar shape of drumlins. Sedimentary Geology, 232(3–4), 119-129. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.01.008 Veillette, J.J. (2004) Ice Flow chronology and palimpsest; long distance dispersal of indicator clasts north of the St. Lawrence River valley, Quebec. Geographie physique et Quaternaire., 58(2-3), 187-216. doi:10.7202/013138ar

PY - 2013/4/11

Y1 - 2013/4/11

N2 - This paper presents results from the first statistical analysis of soils developed on till in Northern Ireland using the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland Tellus regional geochemical database. Till geochemistry is largely determined by its parent bedrock and soils developed on tills are known to inherit this geochemical signature. Soil geochemistry from areas of till can therefore be used to establish sediment provenance which in turn provides information on palaeo ice flow and ice sheet history. In this study we use Principal Component Analysis to establish geochemical groupings that can be related back to likely bedrock parent material for the tills in the region. The maps, presented here at 1:445,000 scale, show the results of the first regional investigation of soil geochemistry of part of the northern sector of the Irish Ice Sheet. The results indicate that the upper surface of the majority of tills in the study area have a close relationship to local bedrock with rapid geochemical changes observed at lithological boundaries. This suggests that tills in this sector of the Irish Ice Sheet are primarily local in origin, indicating rapid entrainment of bedrock and low rates of evacuation of debris to the ice margin

AB - This paper presents results from the first statistical analysis of soils developed on till in Northern Ireland using the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland Tellus regional geochemical database. Till geochemistry is largely determined by its parent bedrock and soils developed on tills are known to inherit this geochemical signature. Soil geochemistry from areas of till can therefore be used to establish sediment provenance which in turn provides information on palaeo ice flow and ice sheet history. In this study we use Principal Component Analysis to establish geochemical groupings that can be related back to likely bedrock parent material for the tills in the region. The maps, presented here at 1:445,000 scale, show the results of the first regional investigation of soil geochemistry of part of the northern sector of the Irish Ice Sheet. The results indicate that the upper surface of the majority of tills in the study area have a close relationship to local bedrock with rapid geochemical changes observed at lithological boundaries. This suggests that tills in this sector of the Irish Ice Sheet are primarily local in origin, indicating rapid entrainment of bedrock and low rates of evacuation of debris to the ice margin

KW - Geochemistry

KW - Tellus

KW - soil

KW - till

KW - British Irish Ice Sheet

UR - http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjom20

U2 - 10.1080/17445647.2013.789414

DO - 10.1080/17445647.2013.789414

M3 - Article

VL - 2013

SP - 1

EP - 17

JO - Journal of Maps

T2 - Journal of Maps

JF - Journal of Maps

SN - 1744-5647

ER -