PRESSURE PEAKING PHENOMENON: MODEL VALIDATION AGAINST UNIGNITED RELEASE AND JET FIRE EXPERIMENTS

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Abstract

The aim of this study is validation of pressure peaking phenomenon models for unignited and ignited releases of hydrogen in enclosures with limited ventilation, e.g. residential garages. The existence of “unexpected” peak in the pressure transient during release of a lighter than air gas in a vented enclosure was observed by Brennan et al. (2010) by carrying out theoretical and numerical research. The amplitude and duration of this pressure peak vary depending on the enclosure volume, vent size and leak flow rate. The peak can significantly exceed the steady-state overpressure, which is reached when the enclosure is fully occupied by leaking with a constant rate gas. The pressure peaking phenomenon can jeopardise a civil structure integrity in the case of accident if it is ignored at the design stage of hydrogen-powered vehicles. This could cause serious life safety and property protection issues that requires development of prevention and mitigation strategies and innovative safety engineering solutions. The experimental validation of the phenomenon was absent up to this work. The previous model for unignited release and developed in this study model for ignited release (jet fire) have been validated against experiments performed in a vented enclosure of 1 m3 volume with three different gases: air, helium, and hydrogen. The model for unignited release reproduces closely the experimental pressure peak and the pressure dynamics within the enclosure. The model for ignited release reproduces the pressure peak with acceptable engineering accuracy, and the simulation of pressure dynamics after the peak requires the increase of the discharge coefficient due to the change of vent flow from heavier air at the start to lighter hot combustion products afterwards and ultimately hydrogen. The methodology to calculate the pressure peaking phenomenon in two steps is described in detail. Examples of pressure peaking phenomenon calculation for typical hydrogen applications are presented. The phenomenon is relevant to most of indoor applications, when release of lighter than air gas is possible in an enclosure with limited ventilation. It must be considered when performing safety engineering design of inherently safer hydrogen systems and infrastructure.
LanguageEnglish
Pages9454-9469
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume43
Early online date18 Apr 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 18 Apr 2018

Fingerprint

FIRE (climatology)
enclosure
Fires
Enclosures
hydrogen
Experiments
Hydrogen
safety
dynamic pressure
ventilation
air
vents
engineering
gases
Safety engineering
Vents
discharge coefficient
Air
Gases
transient pressures

Keywords

  • Release
  • jet fire
  • enclosure
  • vent
  • hydrogen
  • pressure peaking phenomenon
  • model
  • experiment
  • validation

Cite this

@article{d86ba0a82c904e229b41509846129603,
title = "PRESSURE PEAKING PHENOMENON: MODEL VALIDATION AGAINST UNIGNITED RELEASE AND JET FIRE EXPERIMENTS",
abstract = "The aim of this study is validation of pressure peaking phenomenon models for unignited and ignited releases of hydrogen in enclosures with limited ventilation, e.g. residential garages. The existence of “unexpected” peak in the pressure transient during release of a lighter than air gas in a vented enclosure was observed by Brennan et al. (2010) by carrying out theoretical and numerical research. The amplitude and duration of this pressure peak vary depending on the enclosure volume, vent size and leak flow rate. The peak can significantly exceed the steady-state overpressure, which is reached when the enclosure is fully occupied by leaking with a constant rate gas. The pressure peaking phenomenon can jeopardise a civil structure integrity in the case of accident if it is ignored at the design stage of hydrogen-powered vehicles. This could cause serious life safety and property protection issues that requires development of prevention and mitigation strategies and innovative safety engineering solutions. The experimental validation of the phenomenon was absent up to this work. The previous model for unignited release and developed in this study model for ignited release (jet fire) have been validated against experiments performed in a vented enclosure of 1 m3 volume with three different gases: air, helium, and hydrogen. The model for unignited release reproduces closely the experimental pressure peak and the pressure dynamics within the enclosure. The model for ignited release reproduces the pressure peak with acceptable engineering accuracy, and the simulation of pressure dynamics after the peak requires the increase of the discharge coefficient due to the change of vent flow from heavier air at the start to lighter hot combustion products afterwards and ultimately hydrogen. The methodology to calculate the pressure peaking phenomenon in two steps is described in detail. Examples of pressure peaking phenomenon calculation for typical hydrogen applications are presented. The phenomenon is relevant to most of indoor applications, when release of lighter than air gas is possible in an enclosure with limited ventilation. It must be considered when performing safety engineering design of inherently safer hydrogen systems and infrastructure.",
keywords = "Release, jet fire, enclosure, vent, hydrogen, pressure peaking phenomenon, model, experiment, validation",
author = "D. Makarov and V. Shentsov and M. Kuznetsov and V. Molkov",
note = "Non-compliant in the UIR due to the version of the manuscript being unspecified. Screen grab uploaded of manuscript uploaded and 12 month embargo set. Added compliance dates to PURE Portal link",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.03.162",
language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "9454--9469",
journal = "International Journal of Hydrogen Energy",
issn = "0360-3199",
publisher = "Elsevier",

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T1 - PRESSURE PEAKING PHENOMENON: MODEL VALIDATION AGAINST UNIGNITED RELEASE AND JET FIRE EXPERIMENTS

AU - Makarov, D.

AU - Shentsov, V.

AU - Kuznetsov, M.

AU - Molkov, V.

N1 - Non-compliant in the UIR due to the version of the manuscript being unspecified. Screen grab uploaded of manuscript uploaded and 12 month embargo set. Added compliance dates to PURE Portal link

PY - 2018/4/18

Y1 - 2018/4/18

N2 - The aim of this study is validation of pressure peaking phenomenon models for unignited and ignited releases of hydrogen in enclosures with limited ventilation, e.g. residential garages. The existence of “unexpected” peak in the pressure transient during release of a lighter than air gas in a vented enclosure was observed by Brennan et al. (2010) by carrying out theoretical and numerical research. The amplitude and duration of this pressure peak vary depending on the enclosure volume, vent size and leak flow rate. The peak can significantly exceed the steady-state overpressure, which is reached when the enclosure is fully occupied by leaking with a constant rate gas. The pressure peaking phenomenon can jeopardise a civil structure integrity in the case of accident if it is ignored at the design stage of hydrogen-powered vehicles. This could cause serious life safety and property protection issues that requires development of prevention and mitigation strategies and innovative safety engineering solutions. The experimental validation of the phenomenon was absent up to this work. The previous model for unignited release and developed in this study model for ignited release (jet fire) have been validated against experiments performed in a vented enclosure of 1 m3 volume with three different gases: air, helium, and hydrogen. The model for unignited release reproduces closely the experimental pressure peak and the pressure dynamics within the enclosure. The model for ignited release reproduces the pressure peak with acceptable engineering accuracy, and the simulation of pressure dynamics after the peak requires the increase of the discharge coefficient due to the change of vent flow from heavier air at the start to lighter hot combustion products afterwards and ultimately hydrogen. The methodology to calculate the pressure peaking phenomenon in two steps is described in detail. Examples of pressure peaking phenomenon calculation for typical hydrogen applications are presented. The phenomenon is relevant to most of indoor applications, when release of lighter than air gas is possible in an enclosure with limited ventilation. It must be considered when performing safety engineering design of inherently safer hydrogen systems and infrastructure.

AB - The aim of this study is validation of pressure peaking phenomenon models for unignited and ignited releases of hydrogen in enclosures with limited ventilation, e.g. residential garages. The existence of “unexpected” peak in the pressure transient during release of a lighter than air gas in a vented enclosure was observed by Brennan et al. (2010) by carrying out theoretical and numerical research. The amplitude and duration of this pressure peak vary depending on the enclosure volume, vent size and leak flow rate. The peak can significantly exceed the steady-state overpressure, which is reached when the enclosure is fully occupied by leaking with a constant rate gas. The pressure peaking phenomenon can jeopardise a civil structure integrity in the case of accident if it is ignored at the design stage of hydrogen-powered vehicles. This could cause serious life safety and property protection issues that requires development of prevention and mitigation strategies and innovative safety engineering solutions. The experimental validation of the phenomenon was absent up to this work. The previous model for unignited release and developed in this study model for ignited release (jet fire) have been validated against experiments performed in a vented enclosure of 1 m3 volume with three different gases: air, helium, and hydrogen. The model for unignited release reproduces closely the experimental pressure peak and the pressure dynamics within the enclosure. The model for ignited release reproduces the pressure peak with acceptable engineering accuracy, and the simulation of pressure dynamics after the peak requires the increase of the discharge coefficient due to the change of vent flow from heavier air at the start to lighter hot combustion products afterwards and ultimately hydrogen. The methodology to calculate the pressure peaking phenomenon in two steps is described in detail. Examples of pressure peaking phenomenon calculation for typical hydrogen applications are presented. The phenomenon is relevant to most of indoor applications, when release of lighter than air gas is possible in an enclosure with limited ventilation. It must be considered when performing safety engineering design of inherently safer hydrogen systems and infrastructure.

KW - Release

KW - jet fire

KW - enclosure

KW - vent

KW - hydrogen

KW - pressure peaking phenomenon

KW - model

KW - experiment

KW - validation

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.03.162

DO - 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.03.162

M3 - Article

VL - 43

SP - 9454

EP - 9469

JO - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

T2 - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

JF - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

SN - 0360-3199

ER -