Presence and select determinants of organophosphate flame retardants in public swimming pools

Tiffany L.L. Teo, Heather Coleman, Stuart J. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The occurrence of five organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) consisting of tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1.3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) in swimming pools were investigated. Fifteen chlorinated public swimming pools were sampled, including indoor pools, outdoor pools and spa pools. The analyses were carried out using isotope dilution gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All five PFRs were detected in swimming pool waters with concentrations ranging from 5–27 ng/L (TNBP), 7–293 ng/L (TCEP), 62–1180 ng/L (TCIPP), 10–670 ng/L (TDCIPP) and 8–132 ng/L (TPHP). The concentrations of PFRs were generally higher in indoor swimming pools compared to outdoor swimming pools. In municipal water supplies, used to fill the swimming pools in three of the sampling locations, the five PFRs were all below the limit of quantifications, eliminating this as the source. Potential leaching of PFRs from commonly used swimming equipment, including newly purchased kickboards and swimsuits was investigated. These experiments revealed that PFRs leached from swimsuits, and may be a source of PFRs in swimming pools. A quantitative risk assessment revealed that the health risk to PFRs via swimming pools was generally low and below commonly applied health risk benchmarks.
LanguageEnglish
Pages469-475
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume569-70
Early online date26 Jun 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016

Fingerprint

Flame Retardants
Swimming pools
Organophosphates
organophosphate
Flame retardants
Phosphates
phosphate
Health risks
health risk
flame retardant
public
Water supply
Isotopes
Gas chromatography
Risk assessment
Leaching
Dilution
Mass spectrometry
gas chromatography
dilution

Keywords

  • Leaching
  • Chemical contaminants
  • Swimsuits
  • Kickboards
  • Human exposure
  • Health risk assessment

Cite this

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title = "Presence and select determinants of organophosphate flame retardants in public swimming pools",
abstract = "The occurrence of five organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) consisting of tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1.3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) in swimming pools were investigated. Fifteen chlorinated public swimming pools were sampled, including indoor pools, outdoor pools and spa pools. The analyses were carried out using isotope dilution gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All five PFRs were detected in swimming pool waters with concentrations ranging from 5–27 ng/L (TNBP), 7–293 ng/L (TCEP), 62–1180 ng/L (TCIPP), 10–670 ng/L (TDCIPP) and 8–132 ng/L (TPHP). The concentrations of PFRs were generally higher in indoor swimming pools compared to outdoor swimming pools. In municipal water supplies, used to fill the swimming pools in three of the sampling locations, the five PFRs were all below the limit of quantifications, eliminating this as the source. Potential leaching of PFRs from commonly used swimming equipment, including newly purchased kickboards and swimsuits was investigated. These experiments revealed that PFRs leached from swimsuits, and may be a source of PFRs in swimming pools. A quantitative risk assessment revealed that the health risk to PFRs via swimming pools was generally low and below commonly applied health risk benchmarks.",
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Presence and select determinants of organophosphate flame retardants in public swimming pools. / Teo, Tiffany L.L.; Coleman, Heather; Khan, Stuart J.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 569-70, 01.11.2016, p. 469-475.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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