Preparation of stable TiO2-Graphene/Water hybrid nanofluids and development of a new correlation for thermal conductivity

Reza Bakhtiari, Babak Kamkari, Masoud Afrand, Ali Abdollahi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)


The current study investigated the variation of the thermal conductivity coefficient of TiO2-Graphene/Water hybrid nanofluid. Hybrid nanofluids were tested at different temperatures (25 to 75 °C) and different volume fractions (0.005 to 0.5%). The dispersion and stability of nanofluids were investigated by employing the dynamic light scattering and Zeta Potential techniques. Measurements of the thermal conductivity coefficient showed that increase in temperature and volume fraction results in enhancement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids. The results indicated that enhancement of thermal conductivity with increase of solid volume fraction is more pronounced at higher temperatures. However, the effect of increase in volume fraction on thermal conductivity was larger than the effect of temperature. Thermal conductivity at volume fraction of 0.5% and temperature of 75 °C was increased by 27.84% compared to the base fluid. Finally, a model was proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity of nanofluids based on the measured data. According to the results, this model has a margin of error of 1.44%, indicating that the results obtained from model calculations are compatible with experimental data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)466-477
Number of pages12
JournalPowder Technology
Early online date17 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • Correlation
  • Hybrid nanofluids
  • Thermal conductivity
  • TiO2-Graphene/water


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