Preparation and properties of polyamide 6 nanocomposites covalently linked with amide functional graphene oxide

Aidan O’Neill, David Bishop, Brendan Dalton, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger, Dorian Dixon

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Chemically engineered polyamide 6 (PA6)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were produced via the functionalization of GO with an amide (CONH2) functional group, in order to produce amide-GO with improved interfacial bonding and dispersion in the host polymer matrix. In situ polymerization of "-caprolactam was carried out in the presence of amide-GO to create PA6/amide-GO nanocomposites. The nanomaterial (pre- and post-polymerization) and the composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile testing. The single-layer nature of GO was attested by TEM. FTIR, XPS, XRD and thermal analysis techniques confirmed the successful amide modification of GO. The expected attachment of PA6 to the surface of GO is demonstrated, along with the reduction of GO during polymerization. Some reduction of GO during the chemical functionalization process was also observed. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was confirmed, while promotion of α-phase crystallite formation and a molecular weight change of attached PA6 are observed. A linear improvement in stiffness and yield strength was observed as functionalized GO content increased from 0.1 wt% to 0.75 wt%. A levelling off of mechanical properties ensued once the GO content reached 1 wt%, and a decrease was seen at 2 wt%.

    LanguageEnglish
    Pages162-180
    Number of pages19
    JournalJournal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials
    Volume31
    Issue number2
    Early online date23 Dec 2016
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018

    Fingerprint

    Graphite
    Polyamides
    Amides
    Oxides
    Graphene
    amides
    Nanocomposites
    nanocomposites
    graphene
    preparation
    oxides
    polymerization
    Polymerization
    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
    nylon 6
    Caprolactam
    X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
    infrared spectroscopy
    Transmission electron microscopy
    transmission electron microscopy

    Keywords

    • Chemical functionalization
    • Graphene oxide
    • In situ polymerization
    • Polyamide 6

    Cite this

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    title = "Preparation and properties of polyamide 6 nanocomposites covalently linked with amide functional graphene oxide",
    abstract = "Chemically engineered polyamide 6 (PA6)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were produced via the functionalization of GO with an amide (CONH2) functional group, in order to produce amide-GO with improved interfacial bonding and dispersion in the host polymer matrix. In situ polymerization of {"}-caprolactam was carried out in the presence of amide-GO to create PA6/amide-GO nanocomposites. The nanomaterial (pre- and post-polymerization) and the composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile testing. The single-layer nature of GO was attested by TEM. FTIR, XPS, XRD and thermal analysis techniques confirmed the successful amide modification of GO. The expected attachment of PA6 to the surface of GO is demonstrated, along with the reduction of GO during polymerization. Some reduction of GO during the chemical functionalization process was also observed. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was confirmed, while promotion of α-phase crystallite formation and a molecular weight change of attached PA6 are observed. A linear improvement in stiffness and yield strength was observed as functionalized GO content increased from 0.1 wt{\%} to 0.75 wt{\%}. A levelling off of mechanical properties ensued once the GO content reached 1 wt{\%}, and a decrease was seen at 2 wt{\%}.",
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    Preparation and properties of polyamide 6 nanocomposites covalently linked with amide functional graphene oxide. / O’Neill, Aidan; Bishop, David; Dalton, Brendan; Archer, Edward; McIlhagger, Alistair; Dixon, Dorian.

    In: Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, Vol. 31, No. 2, 01.02.2018, p. 162-180.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Preparation and properties of polyamide 6 nanocomposites covalently linked with amide functional graphene oxide

    AU - O’Neill, Aidan

    AU - Bishop, David

    AU - Dalton, Brendan

    AU - Archer, Edward

    AU - McIlhagger, Alistair

    AU - Dixon, Dorian

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    N2 - Chemically engineered polyamide 6 (PA6)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were produced via the functionalization of GO with an amide (CONH2) functional group, in order to produce amide-GO with improved interfacial bonding and dispersion in the host polymer matrix. In situ polymerization of "-caprolactam was carried out in the presence of amide-GO to create PA6/amide-GO nanocomposites. The nanomaterial (pre- and post-polymerization) and the composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile testing. The single-layer nature of GO was attested by TEM. FTIR, XPS, XRD and thermal analysis techniques confirmed the successful amide modification of GO. The expected attachment of PA6 to the surface of GO is demonstrated, along with the reduction of GO during polymerization. Some reduction of GO during the chemical functionalization process was also observed. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was confirmed, while promotion of α-phase crystallite formation and a molecular weight change of attached PA6 are observed. A linear improvement in stiffness and yield strength was observed as functionalized GO content increased from 0.1 wt% to 0.75 wt%. A levelling off of mechanical properties ensued once the GO content reached 1 wt%, and a decrease was seen at 2 wt%.

    AB - Chemically engineered polyamide 6 (PA6)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were produced via the functionalization of GO with an amide (CONH2) functional group, in order to produce amide-GO with improved interfacial bonding and dispersion in the host polymer matrix. In situ polymerization of "-caprolactam was carried out in the presence of amide-GO to create PA6/amide-GO nanocomposites. The nanomaterial (pre- and post-polymerization) and the composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile testing. The single-layer nature of GO was attested by TEM. FTIR, XPS, XRD and thermal analysis techniques confirmed the successful amide modification of GO. The expected attachment of PA6 to the surface of GO is demonstrated, along with the reduction of GO during polymerization. Some reduction of GO during the chemical functionalization process was also observed. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was confirmed, while promotion of α-phase crystallite formation and a molecular weight change of attached PA6 are observed. A linear improvement in stiffness and yield strength was observed as functionalized GO content increased from 0.1 wt% to 0.75 wt%. A levelling off of mechanical properties ensued once the GO content reached 1 wt%, and a decrease was seen at 2 wt%.

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