Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan

ahmed Al-smadi, Loai Tawalbeh, Omar Salem Gammoh, Ala Ashour, Fatmeh Alzoubi, Paul Slater

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.
LanguageEnglish
Pages592-607
JournalClinical Nursing Research
Volume26
Issue number5
Early online date13 Aug 2016
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Aug 2016

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Jordan
Refugees
Demography
Equipment and Supplies
Health

Keywords

  • coping
  • demographics
  • Iraqi refugees
  • health

Cite this

Al-smadi, ahmed ; Tawalbeh, Loai ; Gammoh, Omar Salem ; Ashour, Ala ; Alzoubi, Fatmeh ; Slater, Paul. / Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan. In: Clinical Nursing Research. 2016 ; Vol. 26, No. 5. pp. 592-607.
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title = "Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.",
keywords = "coping, demographics, Iraqi refugees, health",
author = "ahmed Al-smadi and Loai Tawalbeh and Gammoh, {Omar Salem} and Ala Ashour and Fatmeh Alzoubi and Paul Slater",
note = "Reference text: Abdelkerim, A. A., & Grace, M. (2012). Challenges to employment in newly emerging African communities in Australia: A review of the literature. Australian Social Work, 65, 104-119. Alqudah, A. (2013). Resiliency levels among Iraqi refugees in Jordan and its relation to some demographic variables. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 5(4), 50-59. Araya, M., Chotai, J., Komproe, I., & de Jong, J. (2011). Quality of life after postconflict displacement in Ethiopia: Comparing placement in a community setting with that in shelters. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46, 585-593. doi:10.1007/s00127-010-0223-1 Auerbach, R. P., Abela, J. R. Z., Zhu, X. Z., & Yao, S. Q. (2010). Understanding the role of coping in the development of depressive symptoms: Symptom specificity, gender differences, and cross-cultural applicability. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 547-561. doi:10.1348/014466509X479681 Benson, G., Fei, S., David, H., & Androff, D. (2012). Religious coping and acculturation stress among Hindu Bhutanese: A study of newly-resettled refugees in the United States. International Social Work, 55, 538-553. doi:10.1177/0020872811417474 Bethea, L. S. (2001). The function of humor within the lives of older adults. Communication Quarterly, 49(1), QR49. Bj{\"o}rling, E. A. (2009). The momentary relationship between stress and headaches in adolescent girls. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 49, 1186-1197. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2009.01406.x Carver, C. S. (1997). You want to measure coping but your protocol’s too long: Consider the brief cope. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 92-100. 14 Clinical Nursing Research Clarke, K., & Borders, L. (2014). “You got to apply seriousness”: A phenomenological inquiry of Liberian refugees’ coping. Journal of Counseling and Development, 92, 294-303. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00157 Clemente, S. (2014). Fragmented communities: Addressing war and injury-related trauma through community building among Iraqi women refugees in Connecticut. Retrieved from http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1 430&context=theses Crabtree, K. (2010). Economic challenges and coping mechanisms in protracted displacement: A case study of the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 5, 41-58. doi:10.1080/15564901003610073 Davis, R., & Taylor, A. (2014). Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon: A snapshot from summer 2013. The Institute for the Study of International Migration & The Center for Contemporary Arab Studies. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/smart{\%}20 tech/Downloads/syrian-refugee-report-sept-2013.pdf http://ccas.georgetown.edu/ document/1242799693627/Syrian+Refugee+Report+Sept+2013.pdf Ferguson, C. (2015). Stress and coping among Iraqi refugee men. Retrieved from https://csusm-dspace.calstate.edu/handle/10211.3/143753 Finklestein, M., Laufer, A., & Solomon, Z. (2012). Coping strategies of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel: Association with PTSD and dissociation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 490-498. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2012.00972.x/abstract Gammouh, O. S., Al-Smadi, A. M., Tawalbeh, L. I., & Khoury, L. S. (2015). Peer reviewed: Chronic diseases, lack of medications, and depression among Syrian refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12, 140424. Gladden, J. (2012). The coping skills of East African refugees: A literature review. Refugee Survey Quarterly Journal, 31(3), 177-196. doi:10.1093/rsq/hds009 Hamdan-Mansour, A. M., Ghannam, B. M., Al Abeiat, D. D., Al Badawi, T. H., Thultheen, I. N., & Shamali, I. M. (2014). Predicting depression among Jordanian patients diagnosed with physical illnesses. Psychology, 5, 2120-2130. Khawaja, N. G., White, K. M., Schweitzer, R., & Greenslade, J. (2008). Difficulties and coping strategies of Sudanese refugees: A qualitative approach. The Journal of Transcultural Psychiatry, 45, 489-512. doi:10.1177/1363461508094678 Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer. MacKenzie, D. (2013). Lasting costs of Syrian war. New Scientist, 219, 8-9. Matheson, K., Jorden, S., & Anisman, H. (2008). Relations between trauma experiences and psychological, physical and neuroendocrine functioning among Somali refugees: Mediating role of coping with acculturation stressors. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 10, 291-304. doi:10.1007/s10903-007-9086-2 Pumariega, A. J., Rothe, E., & Pumariega, J. B. (2005). Mental health of immigrants and refugees. Community Mental Health Journal, 41, 581-597. Renner, W., & Salem, I. (2009). Post-traumatic stress in asylum seekers and refugees from Chechnya, Afghanistan, and West Africa: Gender differences in symptomatology and coping. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 55(2), 99- 108. doi:10.1177/0020764008092341 Roberts, B., & Browne, J. (2011). A systematic review of factors influencing the psychological health of conflict-affected populations in low- and middle-income countries. The Journal of Global Public Health, 6, 814-829. doi:10.1080/17441 692.2010.511625 Salman, K. F., & Resick, L. K. (2014). The description of health among Iraqi refugee women in the United States. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 17, 1199-1205. doi:10.1007/s10903-014-0035-6 Schnider, K. R., Elhai, J. D., & Gray, M. J. (2007). Coping style use predicts posttraumatic stress and complicated grief symptom severity among college students reporting a traumatic loss. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 344-350. Schweitzer, R., Greenslade, J., & Kagee, A. (2007). Coping and resilience in refugees from the Sudan: A narrative account. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 282-288. doi:10.1080/00048670601172780 Seglem, K. B., Oppedal, B., & Roysamb, E. (2014). Daily hassles and coping dispositions as predictors of psychological adjustment: A comparative study of young unaccompanied refugees and youth in the resettlement country. The International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38, 293-303. doi:10.1177/ 0165025414520807 Selmer, J. (2002). Coping strategies applied by Western vs. overseas Chinese business expatriates in China. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1), 19-34. Tugade, M., Fredrickson, B., & Feldman, B. (2004). Psychological resilience and positive emotional granularity: Examining the benefits of positive emotions on coping and health. Journal of Personality, 72, 1161-1190. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 6494.2004.00294.x United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2015). UNHCR Global Appeal 2015 update—Jordan. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/5461e6070.html Wanzer, M. B., Sparks, L., & Frymier, A. B. (2009). Humorous communication within the lives of older adults: The relationships among humor, coping efficacy, age, and life satisfaction. Health Communication,24, 128-136. World Bank. (2014). World Bank Iraq 2014 statistics. Retrieved from http://data. worldbank.org/country/Iraq Yakushko, O., Watson, M., & Thompson, S. (2008). Stress and coping in the lives of recent immigrants and refugees: Considerations for counseling. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30, 167-178.",
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Al-smadi, A, Tawalbeh, L, Gammoh, OS, Ashour, A, Alzoubi, F & Slater, P 2016, 'Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan', Clinical Nursing Research, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 592-607. https://doi.org/10.1177/1054773816664915

Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan. / Al-smadi, ahmed; Tawalbeh, Loai; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh; Slater, Paul.

In: Clinical Nursing Research, Vol. 26, No. 5, 13.08.2016, p. 592-607.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Al-smadi, ahmed

AU - Tawalbeh, Loai

AU - Gammoh, Omar Salem

AU - Ashour, Ala

AU - Alzoubi, Fatmeh

AU - Slater, Paul

N1 - Reference text: Abdelkerim, A. A., & Grace, M. (2012). Challenges to employment in newly emerging African communities in Australia: A review of the literature. Australian Social Work, 65, 104-119. Alqudah, A. (2013). Resiliency levels among Iraqi refugees in Jordan and its relation to some demographic variables. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 5(4), 50-59. Araya, M., Chotai, J., Komproe, I., & de Jong, J. (2011). Quality of life after postconflict displacement in Ethiopia: Comparing placement in a community setting with that in shelters. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46, 585-593. doi:10.1007/s00127-010-0223-1 Auerbach, R. P., Abela, J. R. Z., Zhu, X. Z., & Yao, S. Q. (2010). Understanding the role of coping in the development of depressive symptoms: Symptom specificity, gender differences, and cross-cultural applicability. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 547-561. doi:10.1348/014466509X479681 Benson, G., Fei, S., David, H., & Androff, D. (2012). Religious coping and acculturation stress among Hindu Bhutanese: A study of newly-resettled refugees in the United States. International Social Work, 55, 538-553. doi:10.1177/0020872811417474 Bethea, L. S. (2001). The function of humor within the lives of older adults. Communication Quarterly, 49(1), QR49. Björling, E. A. (2009). The momentary relationship between stress and headaches in adolescent girls. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 49, 1186-1197. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2009.01406.x Carver, C. S. (1997). You want to measure coping but your protocol’s too long: Consider the brief cope. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 92-100. 14 Clinical Nursing Research Clarke, K., & Borders, L. (2014). “You got to apply seriousness”: A phenomenological inquiry of Liberian refugees’ coping. Journal of Counseling and Development, 92, 294-303. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00157 Clemente, S. (2014). Fragmented communities: Addressing war and injury-related trauma through community building among Iraqi women refugees in Connecticut. Retrieved from http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1 430&context=theses Crabtree, K. (2010). Economic challenges and coping mechanisms in protracted displacement: A case study of the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 5, 41-58. doi:10.1080/15564901003610073 Davis, R., & Taylor, A. (2014). Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon: A snapshot from summer 2013. The Institute for the Study of International Migration & The Center for Contemporary Arab Studies. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/smart%20 tech/Downloads/syrian-refugee-report-sept-2013.pdf http://ccas.georgetown.edu/ document/1242799693627/Syrian+Refugee+Report+Sept+2013.pdf Ferguson, C. (2015). Stress and coping among Iraqi refugee men. Retrieved from https://csusm-dspace.calstate.edu/handle/10211.3/143753 Finklestein, M., Laufer, A., & Solomon, Z. (2012). Coping strategies of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel: Association with PTSD and dissociation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 490-498. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2012.00972.x/abstract Gammouh, O. S., Al-Smadi, A. M., Tawalbeh, L. I., & Khoury, L. S. (2015). Peer reviewed: Chronic diseases, lack of medications, and depression among Syrian refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12, 140424. Gladden, J. (2012). The coping skills of East African refugees: A literature review. Refugee Survey Quarterly Journal, 31(3), 177-196. doi:10.1093/rsq/hds009 Hamdan-Mansour, A. M., Ghannam, B. M., Al Abeiat, D. D., Al Badawi, T. H., Thultheen, I. N., & Shamali, I. M. (2014). Predicting depression among Jordanian patients diagnosed with physical illnesses. Psychology, 5, 2120-2130. Khawaja, N. G., White, K. M., Schweitzer, R., & Greenslade, J. (2008). Difficulties and coping strategies of Sudanese refugees: A qualitative approach. The Journal of Transcultural Psychiatry, 45, 489-512. doi:10.1177/1363461508094678 Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer. MacKenzie, D. (2013). Lasting costs of Syrian war. New Scientist, 219, 8-9. Matheson, K., Jorden, S., & Anisman, H. (2008). Relations between trauma experiences and psychological, physical and neuroendocrine functioning among Somali refugees: Mediating role of coping with acculturation stressors. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 10, 291-304. doi:10.1007/s10903-007-9086-2 Pumariega, A. J., Rothe, E., & Pumariega, J. B. (2005). Mental health of immigrants and refugees. Community Mental Health Journal, 41, 581-597. Renner, W., & Salem, I. (2009). Post-traumatic stress in asylum seekers and refugees from Chechnya, Afghanistan, and West Africa: Gender differences in symptomatology and coping. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 55(2), 99- 108. doi:10.1177/0020764008092341 Roberts, B., & Browne, J. (2011). A systematic review of factors influencing the psychological health of conflict-affected populations in low- and middle-income countries. The Journal of Global Public Health, 6, 814-829. doi:10.1080/17441 692.2010.511625 Salman, K. F., & Resick, L. K. (2014). The description of health among Iraqi refugee women in the United States. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 17, 1199-1205. doi:10.1007/s10903-014-0035-6 Schnider, K. R., Elhai, J. D., & Gray, M. J. (2007). Coping style use predicts posttraumatic stress and complicated grief symptom severity among college students reporting a traumatic loss. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 344-350. Schweitzer, R., Greenslade, J., & Kagee, A. (2007). Coping and resilience in refugees from the Sudan: A narrative account. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 282-288. doi:10.1080/00048670601172780 Seglem, K. B., Oppedal, B., & Roysamb, E. (2014). Daily hassles and coping dispositions as predictors of psychological adjustment: A comparative study of young unaccompanied refugees and youth in the resettlement country. The International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38, 293-303. doi:10.1177/ 0165025414520807 Selmer, J. (2002). Coping strategies applied by Western vs. overseas Chinese business expatriates in China. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1), 19-34. Tugade, M., Fredrickson, B., & Feldman, B. (2004). Psychological resilience and positive emotional granularity: Examining the benefits of positive emotions on coping and health. Journal of Personality, 72, 1161-1190. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 6494.2004.00294.x United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2015). UNHCR Global Appeal 2015 update—Jordan. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/5461e6070.html Wanzer, M. B., Sparks, L., & Frymier, A. B. (2009). Humorous communication within the lives of older adults: The relationships among humor, coping efficacy, age, and life satisfaction. Health Communication,24, 128-136. World Bank. (2014). World Bank Iraq 2014 statistics. Retrieved from http://data. worldbank.org/country/Iraq Yakushko, O., Watson, M., & Thompson, S. (2008). Stress and coping in the lives of recent immigrants and refugees: Considerations for counseling. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30, 167-178.

PY - 2016/8/13

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N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.

AB - The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.

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