Pre-service education and attitudes towards inclusion: the role of the teacher educator within a permeated teaching model.

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Abstract

This study examines the role teacher educators working within a permeated teaching model in Northern Ireland, and student teachers’ attitudes towards SEN and Inclusion.A cohort of 125 student teachers representing eight subject areas responded to a survey exploring attitudes towards issues relating to inclusive education. Interviews conducted with the subject teacher educators examined their beliefs about inclusion, personal efficacy and the extent to which the outworking of a permeated model was an effective method of programme delivery. The findings indicate that while student attitudes towards the philosophy of inclusion were generally positive, those of the teacher educators were not necessarily reflected in the views of their subject group. The research evidenced a lack of uniformity in approach in promoting inclusion and inclusive practices across subjects, suggesting that the use of a permeated model did not always provide equity of student experience when selection of course content was the choice of the individual subject tutor. Teacher educators identified lack of personal knowledge, time restrictions within the pre-service programme and lack of resources as the main barriers to effective practice in supporting student teachers’ learning in SEN and Inclusion.Keywords: teacher educator: pre-service education; SEN and Inclusion; permeated teaching model
LanguageEnglish
Pages975-999
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Volume15
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Nov 2011

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inclusion
educator
Teaching
teacher
student teacher
education
lack
subject teacher
teacher's role
teacher attitude
tutor
Preservice Education
Inclusion
Educators
equity
student
interview
resources
learning
experience

Keywords

  • : teacher educator: pre-service education
  • SEN and Inclusion
  • permeated teaching model

Cite this

@article{f2d7f9ab2d1d4919b267bb4e3d21a10e,
title = "Pre-service education and attitudes towards inclusion: the role of the teacher educator within a permeated teaching model.",
abstract = "This study examines the role teacher educators working within a permeated teaching model in Northern Ireland, and student teachers’ attitudes towards SEN and Inclusion.A cohort of 125 student teachers representing eight subject areas responded to a survey exploring attitudes towards issues relating to inclusive education. Interviews conducted with the subject teacher educators examined their beliefs about inclusion, personal efficacy and the extent to which the outworking of a permeated model was an effective method of programme delivery. The findings indicate that while student attitudes towards the philosophy of inclusion were generally positive, those of the teacher educators were not necessarily reflected in the views of their subject group. The research evidenced a lack of uniformity in approach in promoting inclusion and inclusive practices across subjects, suggesting that the use of a permeated model did not always provide equity of student experience when selection of course content was the choice of the individual subject tutor. Teacher educators identified lack of personal knowledge, time restrictions within the pre-service programme and lack of resources as the main barriers to effective practice in supporting student teachers’ learning in SEN and Inclusion.Keywords: teacher educator: pre-service education; SEN and Inclusion; permeated teaching model",
keywords = ": teacher educator: pre-service education, SEN and Inclusion, permeated teaching model",
author = "Jackie Lambe",
note = "Reference text: Abbott, L. (2006) Northern Ireland head teachers’ perceptions of inclusion, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 10(6), pp. 627 – 643. Ainscow, M. (2000) Reaching Out to All Learners: Some lessons From International Experience, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11(1), pp.1-19. Ainscow, M. (1999) Understanding the Development of Inclusive School, London, Falmer. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P. & Burden, R. (2000) A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary classroom in one local educational authority, Educational Psychology, 20(2), pp.191-211. Avramidis, E. & Norwich, B. (2002) Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: a review of the literature, European Journal of Special Needs Education,17(2), pp.129-147. Bem, D.J., (1970). Beliefs, attitudes and human affairs. Brooks/Cole, Calfornia, USA. Booth, T., Ainscow, M., Black-Hawkins, K., Vaughan, M. & Shaw, L (2000) Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in School (Bristol, Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education). Blanton, L.P., Griffin, C., Winn, J.A. & Pugach, M.C. (eds) (2001) Teacher education in transition: collaborative programs to prepare general and special educators, Denver, CO, Love Publishing Company. Carrier, J. (1990) Special Education and the explanation of pupil performance, Disability, Handicap and Society, 5(1), pp. 211-225. Carrington, S. (1999) Inclusion needs a different school culture. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 3(3), pp. 257-268. Carlin, J. (2003) ‘The Northern Ireland selective system: a wind of change’, The Irish Journal of Education, 24(2), pp. 70-79. Council for the Curriculum Examinations and Assessment (2004) Way Ahead (post primary): the revised curriculum and its assessment, Befast, CCEA. Cook, B. (2002) Inclusive attitudes, strengths, and weaknesses of pre-service general educators enrolled in a curriculum infusion teacher preparation program, Teacher Education and Special Education, 23(3), pp. 262-277. Corbett, J. (1996) Bad-mouthing: The Language of Special Educational Needs: A Cultural Analysis, London, Cassell. Department of Education and Employment (DfEE) (1995) The Disability Discrimination Act, London, HMSO. Department of Education and Skills (2004) Removing barriers to achievement: the governments’ strategy for SEN, London, DfES. Department of Education and Skills (2002) Special Educational Needs and Disability Act, London, DfEE. Department of Education (2007) The Education (Northern Ireland) (Curriculum Minimum Content) Order, Bangor, DE. Department of Education (2006) Schools of the Future: Funding, Strategy, Sharing. Report of The Independent Strategic Review of Education (The Bain Report), Bangor, DE. Department of Education (2005) The Special Needs and Disability (Northern Ireland) Order 2005, Bangor, DE. Department of Education (2004) Future post-primary arrangements in Northern Ireland: advice for the post-primary review working group (The Costello Report), Bangor, DE. Department of Education for Northern Ireland (1998) Code of Practice on the identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs, Bangor, DENI. Department of Education and Training Inspectorate (2003) Report of a survey of the provision for pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools, Bangor, DE. Droba, D.D., (1974). The nature of attitudes, Journal of Social Psychology,(4), pp.444-463. Dwyfor Davies, J & Garner, P. (1997) The views of newly qualified teachers concerning SEN provision in ITE courses, in: J. Dwyfor Davies & P. Garner (eds) At the crossroads: Special Educational Needs and Teacher Education, London, David Fulton. Equality Commission (2004) Commission response to OFMDFM. Consultation paper: a single equality bill for Northern Ireland, Belfast, Equality Commission. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen. I. (1975). Belief, attitude and behaviour: An introduction to theory and research.Addison Wesley, Phillipines. Florian, L. (1998) An examination of the practical problems associated with the implementation of inclusive education policies, Support for Learning, 13(4), 105-108. Ford, A., Pugach, M.C., Otis-Wilborn, A. (2001) Preparing general educators to work well with students who have disabilities: What;s reasonable at the preservice level? Learning Disability Quarterly, 23(4), pp. 275-285. Forlin, C., Hattie, J., & Douglas, G. (1996) ‘Inclusion: Is it stressful for teachers?’ Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 21(3), pp. 199-217. Gallagher, T., & Smith, A. (2000) The effects of the selective system of secondary education in Northern Ireland Research papers Vols. 1 & 2, Bangor, DENI. Gabel, S. (2001) “I wash my face with dirty water” Narratives of disability and pedagogy, Journal of Teacher Education, 52, pp. 31-47. General teaching Council for Northern Ireland (2005) Review of Teacher Competences and Continuing Professional Development, Belfast, GTCNI. Harland, J., Moor, H., Kinder, K. and Ashworth, M. (2002). Is the Curriculum Working? The Key Stage 3 Phase of the Northern Ireland Curriculum Cohort Study. Slough: NFER http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/search/index.asp?zoom_query=harland+report (accessed 5th August, 2009). Harvey, D.H. (1985) Mainstreaming teachers attitudes when they have no choice about the matter’, Exceptional Child, 32(9), pp.163-173. Hastings, R. P., Hewes, A., Lock, S. &. Witting, A. (1996) Do Special Educational Needs courses have any impact on student teachers’ perceptions of children with severe difficulties? British Journal of Special Education, 23(3), 139-151. Hyland, A, Milne, K, Byrne, G & Dallat, J, (1995) Irish Educational Documents, Volume 3, Church of Ireland College of Education (C.I.C.E.), Rathmines, Dublin 6. Kearns, H. & Shevlin, M. (2006) Initial teacher preparation for special educational needs: policy and practice in the North and South of Ireland, Teacher Development, 10(1), pp. 25-42. Kluth, P., Straut, D., & Biklen, D. (2003) Access to academics for all students: Critical approaches to inclusive curriculum, instruction and policy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kurz, N.& Paul, P.V. (2005) Toward an inclusive teacher education program, Journal of Teaching and Learning, 3(2), pp. 17-27. Lambe, J. & Bones, R. (2008) The impact of a special school placement on student teacher beliefs about inclusive education in Northern Ireland, British Journal of Special Needs, 35(2),108-117. Lambe, J. (2007) Northern Ireland student teachers changing attitudes’ towards inclusive education during initial teacher training. International Journal of Special Needs, 22 (1).http://www.internationaljournalofspecialeducation.com/articles.cfm?y=2007&v=22&n=1 Lambe, J & Bones, R. (2006) Student teachers’ attitudes to inclusion: implications for Initial Teacher Education in Northern Ireland. International Journal of Inclusive Education10(6), pp. 511 – 527. Lambe, J.& Bones, R. (2006a) Student teachers’ perceptions about inclusive classroom teaching in Northern Ireland prior to teaching practice experience. The European Journal of Special Needs Education, 21(2), pp.167-186. Lambe J, &Bones, R. (2006b) The effect of school-based practice on student teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion in Northern Ireland. Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 33(1), pp. 99-113. Leyser, Y.& Kirk, R. (2004) Evaluation inclusion : an examination of parental views and factors influencing their perspectives, International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 51(3), pp. 271-285. Lindsay, G. (2003) Inclusive education: a critical perspective. The Gulliford Lecture, The British Journal of Special Education, 30(1), pp. 3-12. Lunt, I. & Norwich, B. (1999) Can effective Schools be Inclusive Schools? Perspectives on Educational Policy, London, Institute of Education. Martinez, R.(2003) Impact of a Graduate Class on Attitudes toward Inclusion, Perceived Teaching Efficacy and Knowledge about Adapting Instruction for Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Settings, Teacher Development, 7(3), pp. 473-487. Miles, M.B.& Huberman, A.M., (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis, Sage, Newbury Park, CA. Mittler, P. (2000) Working towards inclusive social contexts, London, David Fulton. Muthukrishna, N. (2000) Transforming professional development programmes into an inclusive education system, in: H. Savolainen, H Kokkala & H Alasuutari (eds) Meeting special and diverse educational needs: making inclusive education a reality, Helsinki, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Nagata, N. (2005) Characteristics of teacher preparation programs and the issue perceptions of teacher educators in deaf education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The Ohio State University, Columbus. Northern Ireland Executive (2001) Draft Programme for Government, Belfast, OFMDFM. Norwich, B. (2002) Education, Inclusion and Individual Differences: Recognising and Resolving Dilemmas, British Journal of Educational Studies, 50(4), pp. 482-302. Norwich, B. (1997) A Trend Towards Inclusion: Statistics on Special School Placements and Pupils with Statements in Ordinary Schools 1992-1996 (London, CSIE). Norwich, B. (1996) Special needs education or education for all: connective specialisation and ideological impurity, British Journal of Special Education, 23(1),pp. 100-104. Pugach, M. C. (1995) On the failure of imagination in inclusive schooling, The Journal of Special Education, 29(2), pp. 212 -223. Romi, S.& Leyser, Y. (2006) Exploring inclusion pre-service training needs: a study of variable associated with attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 21(1), 86-105. Scruggs, T.E.& Mastropieri, M. A. (1996) Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958-1995: a research synthesis, Exceptional Children, 63(1), pp. 59-74. Shippen, M.E., Crites, S. A., Houchins, D.E., Ramsey, M. L., & Simon, M. (2005) Preservice teachers’ perceptions of including students with disabilities, Teacher Education and Special Education, 28(2), pp.92-99. Slee, R. (2000) Meaning in the Service of Power, Keynote Address at the International Special Needs Congress, Manchester, Manchester University. Slee, R. (2001) ‘Inclusion in Practice’: does practice make perfect? Educational Review, 53(2), pp.113-123. Soodak, L.C., & Podell, D. M. (1996). Teacher efficacy: Toward the understanding of a multi-faceted construct, Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(4), 401-412. Tait, K.& Purdie, N. (2000) Attitudes toward disability: teacher education for inclusive environments in an Australian university. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education. 47(1), pp. 25-38. Van Reusen, A.K., Shoho, A.R. & Barker, K.S.(2000) ‘High schools teacher attitudes toward inclusion’, High School Journal, 84(2),7-20. Vaughan, S., Schumm, J.S., Jallad, B., Slusher, J., & Samuell, L. (1996) Teachers views of Inclusion, Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 11(1), pp. 96-106. Vaughan, S., Schumm, J. S. & Sinagub, J. (1996a) Focus Group Interviews in Education and Psychology, Thousand Oaks, CA., Sage. Wilczenski, F. L. (1993) Changes in attitudes toward mainstreaming among undergraduate education students, Educational Research Quarterly, 17(1), pp. 5-17. Wilkins, T. & Nietfeld, J.L., ((2004) The effect of a school-wide inclusion training programme upon teachers’ attitudes about inclusion. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 4(3), 115-121.",
year = "2011",
month = "11",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1080/13603110903490705",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "975--999",
journal = "International Journal of Inclusive Education",
issn = "1360-3116",
number = "9",

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T1 - Pre-service education and attitudes towards inclusion: the role of the teacher educator within a permeated teaching model.

AU - Lambe, Jackie

N1 - Reference text: Abbott, L. (2006) Northern Ireland head teachers’ perceptions of inclusion, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 10(6), pp. 627 – 643. Ainscow, M. (2000) Reaching Out to All Learners: Some lessons From International Experience, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11(1), pp.1-19. Ainscow, M. (1999) Understanding the Development of Inclusive School, London, Falmer. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P. & Burden, R. (2000) A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary classroom in one local educational authority, Educational Psychology, 20(2), pp.191-211. Avramidis, E. & Norwich, B. (2002) Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: a review of the literature, European Journal of Special Needs Education,17(2), pp.129-147. Bem, D.J., (1970). Beliefs, attitudes and human affairs. Brooks/Cole, Calfornia, USA. Booth, T., Ainscow, M., Black-Hawkins, K., Vaughan, M. & Shaw, L (2000) Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in School (Bristol, Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education). Blanton, L.P., Griffin, C., Winn, J.A. & Pugach, M.C. (eds) (2001) Teacher education in transition: collaborative programs to prepare general and special educators, Denver, CO, Love Publishing Company. Carrier, J. (1990) Special Education and the explanation of pupil performance, Disability, Handicap and Society, 5(1), pp. 211-225. Carrington, S. (1999) Inclusion needs a different school culture. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 3(3), pp. 257-268. Carlin, J. (2003) ‘The Northern Ireland selective system: a wind of change’, The Irish Journal of Education, 24(2), pp. 70-79. Council for the Curriculum Examinations and Assessment (2004) Way Ahead (post primary): the revised curriculum and its assessment, Befast, CCEA. Cook, B. (2002) Inclusive attitudes, strengths, and weaknesses of pre-service general educators enrolled in a curriculum infusion teacher preparation program, Teacher Education and Special Education, 23(3), pp. 262-277. Corbett, J. (1996) Bad-mouthing: The Language of Special Educational Needs: A Cultural Analysis, London, Cassell. Department of Education and Employment (DfEE) (1995) The Disability Discrimination Act, London, HMSO. Department of Education and Skills (2004) Removing barriers to achievement: the governments’ strategy for SEN, London, DfES. Department of Education and Skills (2002) Special Educational Needs and Disability Act, London, DfEE. Department of Education (2007) The Education (Northern Ireland) (Curriculum Minimum Content) Order, Bangor, DE. Department of Education (2006) Schools of the Future: Funding, Strategy, Sharing. Report of The Independent Strategic Review of Education (The Bain Report), Bangor, DE. Department of Education (2005) The Special Needs and Disability (Northern Ireland) Order 2005, Bangor, DE. Department of Education (2004) Future post-primary arrangements in Northern Ireland: advice for the post-primary review working group (The Costello Report), Bangor, DE. Department of Education for Northern Ireland (1998) Code of Practice on the identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs, Bangor, DENI. Department of Education and Training Inspectorate (2003) Report of a survey of the provision for pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools, Bangor, DE. Droba, D.D., (1974). The nature of attitudes, Journal of Social Psychology,(4), pp.444-463. Dwyfor Davies, J & Garner, P. (1997) The views of newly qualified teachers concerning SEN provision in ITE courses, in: J. Dwyfor Davies & P. Garner (eds) At the crossroads: Special Educational Needs and Teacher Education, London, David Fulton. Equality Commission (2004) Commission response to OFMDFM. Consultation paper: a single equality bill for Northern Ireland, Belfast, Equality Commission. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen. I. (1975). Belief, attitude and behaviour: An introduction to theory and research.Addison Wesley, Phillipines. Florian, L. (1998) An examination of the practical problems associated with the implementation of inclusive education policies, Support for Learning, 13(4), 105-108. Ford, A., Pugach, M.C., Otis-Wilborn, A. (2001) Preparing general educators to work well with students who have disabilities: What;s reasonable at the preservice level? Learning Disability Quarterly, 23(4), pp. 275-285. Forlin, C., Hattie, J., & Douglas, G. (1996) ‘Inclusion: Is it stressful for teachers?’ Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 21(3), pp. 199-217. Gallagher, T., & Smith, A. (2000) The effects of the selective system of secondary education in Northern Ireland Research papers Vols. 1 & 2, Bangor, DENI. Gabel, S. (2001) “I wash my face with dirty water” Narratives of disability and pedagogy, Journal of Teacher Education, 52, pp. 31-47. General teaching Council for Northern Ireland (2005) Review of Teacher Competences and Continuing Professional Development, Belfast, GTCNI. Harland, J., Moor, H., Kinder, K. and Ashworth, M. (2002). Is the Curriculum Working? The Key Stage 3 Phase of the Northern Ireland Curriculum Cohort Study. Slough: NFER http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/search/index.asp?zoom_query=harland+report (accessed 5th August, 2009). Harvey, D.H. (1985) Mainstreaming teachers attitudes when they have no choice about the matter’, Exceptional Child, 32(9), pp.163-173. Hastings, R. P., Hewes, A., Lock, S. &. Witting, A. (1996) Do Special Educational Needs courses have any impact on student teachers’ perceptions of children with severe difficulties? British Journal of Special Education, 23(3), 139-151. Hyland, A, Milne, K, Byrne, G & Dallat, J, (1995) Irish Educational Documents, Volume 3, Church of Ireland College of Education (C.I.C.E.), Rathmines, Dublin 6. Kearns, H. & Shevlin, M. (2006) Initial teacher preparation for special educational needs: policy and practice in the North and South of Ireland, Teacher Development, 10(1), pp. 25-42. Kluth, P., Straut, D., & Biklen, D. (2003) Access to academics for all students: Critical approaches to inclusive curriculum, instruction and policy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kurz, N.& Paul, P.V. (2005) Toward an inclusive teacher education program, Journal of Teaching and Learning, 3(2), pp. 17-27. Lambe, J. & Bones, R. (2008) The impact of a special school placement on student teacher beliefs about inclusive education in Northern Ireland, British Journal of Special Needs, 35(2),108-117. Lambe, J. (2007) Northern Ireland student teachers changing attitudes’ towards inclusive education during initial teacher training. International Journal of Special Needs, 22 (1).http://www.internationaljournalofspecialeducation.com/articles.cfm?y=2007&v=22&n=1 Lambe, J & Bones, R. (2006) Student teachers’ attitudes to inclusion: implications for Initial Teacher Education in Northern Ireland. International Journal of Inclusive Education10(6), pp. 511 – 527. Lambe, J.& Bones, R. (2006a) Student teachers’ perceptions about inclusive classroom teaching in Northern Ireland prior to teaching practice experience. The European Journal of Special Needs Education, 21(2), pp.167-186. Lambe J, &Bones, R. (2006b) The effect of school-based practice on student teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion in Northern Ireland. Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 33(1), pp. 99-113. Leyser, Y.& Kirk, R. (2004) Evaluation inclusion : an examination of parental views and factors influencing their perspectives, International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 51(3), pp. 271-285. Lindsay, G. (2003) Inclusive education: a critical perspective. The Gulliford Lecture, The British Journal of Special Education, 30(1), pp. 3-12. Lunt, I. & Norwich, B. (1999) Can effective Schools be Inclusive Schools? Perspectives on Educational Policy, London, Institute of Education. Martinez, R.(2003) Impact of a Graduate Class on Attitudes toward Inclusion, Perceived Teaching Efficacy and Knowledge about Adapting Instruction for Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Settings, Teacher Development, 7(3), pp. 473-487. Miles, M.B.& Huberman, A.M., (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis, Sage, Newbury Park, CA. Mittler, P. (2000) Working towards inclusive social contexts, London, David Fulton. Muthukrishna, N. (2000) Transforming professional development programmes into an inclusive education system, in: H. Savolainen, H Kokkala & H Alasuutari (eds) Meeting special and diverse educational needs: making inclusive education a reality, Helsinki, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Nagata, N. (2005) Characteristics of teacher preparation programs and the issue perceptions of teacher educators in deaf education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The Ohio State University, Columbus. Northern Ireland Executive (2001) Draft Programme for Government, Belfast, OFMDFM. Norwich, B. (2002) Education, Inclusion and Individual Differences: Recognising and Resolving Dilemmas, British Journal of Educational Studies, 50(4), pp. 482-302. Norwich, B. (1997) A Trend Towards Inclusion: Statistics on Special School Placements and Pupils with Statements in Ordinary Schools 1992-1996 (London, CSIE). Norwich, B. (1996) Special needs education or education for all: connective specialisation and ideological impurity, British Journal of Special Education, 23(1),pp. 100-104. Pugach, M. C. (1995) On the failure of imagination in inclusive schooling, The Journal of Special Education, 29(2), pp. 212 -223. Romi, S.& Leyser, Y. (2006) Exploring inclusion pre-service training needs: a study of variable associated with attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 21(1), 86-105. Scruggs, T.E.& Mastropieri, M. A. (1996) Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958-1995: a research synthesis, Exceptional Children, 63(1), pp. 59-74. Shippen, M.E., Crites, S. A., Houchins, D.E., Ramsey, M. L., & Simon, M. (2005) Preservice teachers’ perceptions of including students with disabilities, Teacher Education and Special Education, 28(2), pp.92-99. Slee, R. (2000) Meaning in the Service of Power, Keynote Address at the International Special Needs Congress, Manchester, Manchester University. Slee, R. (2001) ‘Inclusion in Practice’: does practice make perfect? Educational Review, 53(2), pp.113-123. Soodak, L.C., & Podell, D. M. (1996). Teacher efficacy: Toward the understanding of a multi-faceted construct, Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(4), 401-412. Tait, K.& Purdie, N. (2000) Attitudes toward disability: teacher education for inclusive environments in an Australian university. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education. 47(1), pp. 25-38. Van Reusen, A.K., Shoho, A.R. & Barker, K.S.(2000) ‘High schools teacher attitudes toward inclusion’, High School Journal, 84(2),7-20. Vaughan, S., Schumm, J.S., Jallad, B., Slusher, J., & Samuell, L. (1996) Teachers views of Inclusion, Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 11(1), pp. 96-106. Vaughan, S., Schumm, J. S. & Sinagub, J. (1996a) Focus Group Interviews in Education and Psychology, Thousand Oaks, CA., Sage. Wilczenski, F. L. (1993) Changes in attitudes toward mainstreaming among undergraduate education students, Educational Research Quarterly, 17(1), pp. 5-17. Wilkins, T. & Nietfeld, J.L., ((2004) The effect of a school-wide inclusion training programme upon teachers’ attitudes about inclusion. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 4(3), 115-121.

PY - 2011/11/21

Y1 - 2011/11/21

N2 - This study examines the role teacher educators working within a permeated teaching model in Northern Ireland, and student teachers’ attitudes towards SEN and Inclusion.A cohort of 125 student teachers representing eight subject areas responded to a survey exploring attitudes towards issues relating to inclusive education. Interviews conducted with the subject teacher educators examined their beliefs about inclusion, personal efficacy and the extent to which the outworking of a permeated model was an effective method of programme delivery. The findings indicate that while student attitudes towards the philosophy of inclusion were generally positive, those of the teacher educators were not necessarily reflected in the views of their subject group. The research evidenced a lack of uniformity in approach in promoting inclusion and inclusive practices across subjects, suggesting that the use of a permeated model did not always provide equity of student experience when selection of course content was the choice of the individual subject tutor. Teacher educators identified lack of personal knowledge, time restrictions within the pre-service programme and lack of resources as the main barriers to effective practice in supporting student teachers’ learning in SEN and Inclusion.Keywords: teacher educator: pre-service education; SEN and Inclusion; permeated teaching model

AB - This study examines the role teacher educators working within a permeated teaching model in Northern Ireland, and student teachers’ attitudes towards SEN and Inclusion.A cohort of 125 student teachers representing eight subject areas responded to a survey exploring attitudes towards issues relating to inclusive education. Interviews conducted with the subject teacher educators examined their beliefs about inclusion, personal efficacy and the extent to which the outworking of a permeated model was an effective method of programme delivery. The findings indicate that while student attitudes towards the philosophy of inclusion were generally positive, those of the teacher educators were not necessarily reflected in the views of their subject group. The research evidenced a lack of uniformity in approach in promoting inclusion and inclusive practices across subjects, suggesting that the use of a permeated model did not always provide equity of student experience when selection of course content was the choice of the individual subject tutor. Teacher educators identified lack of personal knowledge, time restrictions within the pre-service programme and lack of resources as the main barriers to effective practice in supporting student teachers’ learning in SEN and Inclusion.Keywords: teacher educator: pre-service education; SEN and Inclusion; permeated teaching model

KW - : teacher educator: pre-service education

KW - SEN and Inclusion

KW - permeated teaching model

U2 - 10.1080/13603110903490705

DO - 10.1080/13603110903490705

M3 - Article

VL - 15

SP - 975

EP - 999

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T2 - International Journal of Inclusive Education

JF - International Journal of Inclusive Education

SN - 1360-3116

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ER -