Positive collateral damage or purposeful design: How sport-based interventions impact the psychological well-being of people in prison

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Abstract

Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to review the impact of sport-based interventions (SBI) on the psychological well-being of people in prison. Secondary aims were to identify whether psychological theory of health behaviour change was included in the design and evaluation of interventions, and the inclusion of additional non-sporting components.Methods: A textual narrative synthesis followed a systematic search of six databases, based on PRISMA guidelines, and conducted during April 2016. Inclusion criteria were people in prison, aged 15 or over, involved in a facilitated SBI. The outcome was impact on psychological well-being and all study designs were considered. Search results were reduced from 10,749 studies, to 14 (nine quantitative and five qualitative) after screening.Results: Interventions lasted from six weeks to nine months, with nine being multi-component. Apositive affect on psychological well-being or related variable was reported in twelve studies. However, there were inconsistencies in measurement, a lack of baseline data and limited follow-up. Health behaviour change theories were a notable omission across the interventions.Conclusions: SBIs display a positive trend toward beneficial impact on psychological well-being within prisons. However, future studies should aim to address identified measurement inconsistencies and weak research design, and also include psychological change theory in their design. This will better enable practitioners and researchers alike to identify the key psychological mechanisms impacted and how, subsequently implementing SBIs with increased understanding and confidence in their contribution to prisoner psychological well-being.
LanguageEnglish
Pages152-162
Number of pages11
JournalMental Health and Physical Activity
Volume12
Early online date20 Sep 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Sep 2017

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Prisons
Sports
Psychology
Psychological Theory
Health Behavior
Prisoners
Research Design
Research Personnel
Databases
Guidelines

Keywords

  • Sport
  • Physical activity
  • Mental health
  • Resilience
  • Exercise

Cite this

@article{31349a036f9d4796a32c5b12d0d2ecdd,
title = "Positive collateral damage or purposeful design: How sport-based interventions impact the psychological well-being of people in prison",
abstract = "Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to review the impact of sport-based interventions (SBI) on the psychological well-being of people in prison. Secondary aims were to identify whether psychological theory of health behaviour change was included in the design and evaluation of interventions, and the inclusion of additional non-sporting components.Methods: A textual narrative synthesis followed a systematic search of six databases, based on PRISMA guidelines, and conducted during April 2016. Inclusion criteria were people in prison, aged 15 or over, involved in a facilitated SBI. The outcome was impact on psychological well-being and all study designs were considered. Search results were reduced from 10,749 studies, to 14 (nine quantitative and five qualitative) after screening.Results: Interventions lasted from six weeks to nine months, with nine being multi-component. Apositive affect on psychological well-being or related variable was reported in twelve studies. However, there were inconsistencies in measurement, a lack of baseline data and limited follow-up. Health behaviour change theories were a notable omission across the interventions.Conclusions: SBIs display a positive trend toward beneficial impact on psychological well-being within prisons. However, future studies should aim to address identified measurement inconsistencies and weak research design, and also include psychological change theory in their design. This will better enable practitioners and researchers alike to identify the key psychological mechanisms impacted and how, subsequently implementing SBIs with increased understanding and confidence in their contribution to prisoner psychological well-being.",
keywords = "Sport, Physical activity, Mental health, Resilience, Exercise",
author = "David Woods and Gavin Breslin and D Hassan",
note = "Reference text: Amorose, A. J. (2007). Coaching effectiveness. In M. S. Hagger, & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 209e227). Leeds: Human Kinetics. Amtmann, J., & Kukay, J. (2016). Fitness changes after an 8-week fitness coaching program at a regional youth detention facility. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 22(1), 75e83. Arent, S., Landers, M., & Etnier, J. (2000). The effects of exercise on mood in older adults: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Ageing and Physical Activity, 8, 407e430. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2015). The health of Australia's prisoners 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Baldwin, C. K. (2000). Theory, program and outcomes: Assessing the challenges of evaluating at-risk youth recreation programs. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 18, 19e33. Battaglia, C., di Cagno, A., Fiorilli, G., Giombini, A., Borrione, P., Baralla, F., et al. (2015). Participation in a 9-month selected physical exercise programme enhances psychological well-being in a prison population. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 25(5), 343e354. Biddle, S. J., & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: A review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 886e895. Biddle, S. J., Mutrie, N., & Gorely, T. (2015). Psychology of physical Activity: Determinants, well-being and interventions. Routledge. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77e101. Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. Oxford University Press. Buckaloo, B. J., Krug, K. S., & Nelson, K. B. (2009). Exercise and the low-security inmate changes in depression, stress, and anxiety. The Prison Journal, 89(3), 328e343. Cameron, M., & MacDougall, C. J. (2000). Crime prevention through sport and physical activity (Vol. 165). Australian Institute of Criminology. Cashin, A., Potter, E., & Butler, T. (2008). The relationship between exercise and hopelessness in prison. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15, 66e71. Coalter, F. (2009). The value of Sport: Crime reduction and community safety. London: Sport England/UK Sport. Coalter, F. (2013). Sport for development: What game are we playing? Routledge. Collins, M., Henry, I., Houlihan, B., & Buller, J. (1999). Sport and social exclusion. Loughborough: Loughborough University. Council of Europe. (2001). Recommendation No. R. (92) 13 REV of the committee of ministers of members States on the revised European sports charter (Strasbourg, France). De Viggiani, N. (2012). Trying to be something you are not: Masculine performances within a prison setting. Men and Masculinities, 15(3), 271e291. Dubberley, S., Parry, O., & Baker, S. A. (2011). Mending fences: Reparation and the reorientation of young people in the secure estate. Criminal Justice Studies, 24(4), 337e350. Durcan, G. (2016). Mental health and criminal justice. Views from consultations across England & Wales. Centre for Mental Health. Fazel, S., Hayes, A. J., Bartellas, K., Clerici, M., & Trestman, R. (2016). Mental health of prisoners: Prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(9), 871e881. Fox, K. R. (1999). The influence of physical activity on mental well-being. Public Health Nutrition, 2(3a), 411e418. Gallant, D., Sherry, E., & Nicholson, M. (2014). Recreation or rehabilitation? Managing sport for development programs with prison populations. Sport Management Review, 18(1), 45e56. Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., Amoura, S., & Baldes, B. (2010). Influence of coaches' autonomy support on athletes' motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 155e16. Gunnell, K. E., Crocker, P. R., Mack, D. E., Wilson, P. M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2014). Goal contents, motivation, psychological need satisfaction, well-being and physical activity: A test of self-determination theory over 6 months. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 19e29. Hartmann, D. (2001). Notes on midnight basketball and the cultural politics of recreation, race and at-risk Urban youth. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 25, 339e372. Hartmann, D., & Kwauk, C. (2011). Sport and Development: An overview, critique, and reconstruction. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 35(3), 284e305. Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Postmes, T., & Haslam, C. (2009). Social identity, health and well being: An emerging agenda for applied psychology. Applied Psychology, 58(1), 1e23. Holt, N. L. (2016). Positive youth development through sport. Routledge. Jones, G. J., Edwards, M. B., Bocarro, J. N., Bunds, K. S., & Smith, J. W. (2017). An integrative review of sport-based youth development literature. Sport in Society, 20(1), 161e179. Kay, T. (2009). Developing through sport: Evidencing sport impacts on young people. Sport in Society, 12(9), 1177e1191. Kehily, M. J. (2007). Understanding youth: Perspectives, identities and practices. Youth: Perspectives and Practice. London: Sage/The Open University. Lancet. (2016). Physical activity 2016: Progress and challenges progress in physical activity over the olympic quadrennium. 388:1326e1336. Retrieved from http:// www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(16)30581-5.pdf. Leberman, S. (2007). Voices behind the walls: Female offenders and experiential learning. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 7, 113e120. Lewis, G., & Meek, R. (2012). Sport and physical education across the secure estate: An exploration of policy and practice. Criminal Justice Matters, 90(1), 32e34. Lubans, D. R., Plotnikoff, R. C., & Lubans, N. J. (2012). Review: A systematic review of the impact of physical activity programmes on social and emotional well-being in at-risk youth. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17(1), 2e13. Lubans, D., Richards, J., Hillman, C., Faulkner, G., Beauchamp, M., Nilsson, M., et al. (2016). Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: A systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics, 138(3), e20161642. Mack, D. E., Wilson, P. M., Gunnell, K. E., Gilchrist, J. D., Kowalski, K. C., & Crocker, P. R. (2012). Health-enhancing physical activity: associations with markers of well-being. Applied Psychology: Health andWell-Being, 4(2), 127e150. Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: A motivational model. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21, 883e904. Martin, R. E., Adamson, S., Korchinski, M., Granger-Brown, A., Ramsden, V. R., Buxton, J. A., et al. (2013). Incarcerated women develop a nutrition and fitness program: Participatory research. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 9(3), 142e150. Martos-Garcıa, D., Devıs-Devıs, J., & Sparkes, A. C. (2009). Sport and physical activity in a high security Spanish prison: An ethnographic study of multiple meanings. Sport, Education and Society, 14, 77e96. Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. American Psychological Association. Mason, P., Curl, A., & Kearns, A. (2016). Domains and levels of physical activity are linked to adult mental health and well-being in deprived neighbourhoods: A cross-sectional study. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 11, 19e29. Meek, R., & Lewis, G. (2014a). The impact of a sports initiative for young men in prison: Staff and participant perspectives. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 38(2), 95e123. Meek, R., & Lewis, G. E. (2014b). Promoting well-being and desistance through sport and physical activity: The opportunities and barriers experienced by women in english prisons. Women & Criminal Justice, 24(2), 151e172. Moore, G., Audrey, S., Barker, M., Bond, L., Bonell, C., Hardeman, W., et al. (2015). Process evaluation of complex interventions. Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ, 2015;350:h1258. Nichols, G. (2004). Crime and punishment and sports development. Leisure Studies, 23(2), 177e194. Nichols, G. (2007). Sport and crime reduction: The role of sports in tackling youth crime. Abingdon: Routledge. Nichols, G., & Taylor, P. (1996). West Yorkshire sports counselling: Final evaluation report. Halifax: West Yorkshire Sports Counselling Association. Norman, M. (2017). Sport in the underlife of a total institution: Social control and resistance in Canadian prisons. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52(5), 598e614. Oakes, P. J., Haslam, S. A., & Turner, J. C. (1994). Stereotyping and social reality. Oxford: Blackwell. Parker, A., Meek, R., & Lewis, G. (2014). Sport in a youth prison: Male young offenders' experiences of a sporting intervention. Journal of Youth Studies, 17(3), 381e396. Parkinson, M. (1998). Combating social exclusion: Lessons from area-based programmes in Europe (p. 37). Bristol: Policy Press. Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation Methods: Integrating theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Prochaska, J. O., Redding, C. A., & Evers, K. E. (2008). The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 97e117). Jossey-Bass. Reicher, S. D., & Haslam, S. A. (2006). Rethinking the psychology of tyranny: The BBC prison experiment. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 1e40. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141e166. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719. Sandford, R. A., Armour, K. M., & Warmington, P. C. (2006). Re-engaging disaffected youth through physical activity programmes. British Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 251e271. Sharp, C., Schagen, I., & Scott, E. (2004). Playing for success: The longer term impact. A multilevel analysis (No. RB593). Nottingham, UK: National Foundation for Educational Research. Sparkes, A. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and problems of criteria: Implications for sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 363e386. Stewart-Brown, S., & Janmohamed, K. (2008). Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale. User guide. Version, 1. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Tajfel, H. (1972). Experiments in a vacuum. In J. Israel, & H. Tajfel (Eds.), The context of social psychology: A critical assessment (pp. 69e119). London: Academic Press. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin, & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33e47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. Taylor, P., Crow, I., Irvine, D., & Nichols, G. (1999). Demanding physical programmes for young offenders under probation supervision. Research Findings 91. London: Home Office. Travis, J., Western, B., & Redburn, F. S. (2014). The growth of incarceration in the United States: Exploring causes and consequences. National Academies Press. Turner, J. C. (1985). Social categorization and the self-concept: A social cognitive theory of group behaviour. In E. J. Lawler (Ed.), Advances in group processes: Theory and research (vol. 2, pp. 77e122). Greenwich, CT: JAI. West, S. T., & Crompton, J. L. (2001). A review of the impact of adventure programs on at-risk youth. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 19(2), 113e140. Williams, D., Collingwood, L., Coles, J., & Schmeer, S. (2015). Evaluating a rugby sport intervention programme for young offenders. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 5(1), 51e64. Woodall, J., Dixey, R., & South, J. (2014). Control and choice in english prisons: Developing health-promoting prisons. Health Promotion International, 29(3), 474e482. Woods, D., Breslin, G., & Hassan, D. (2017). A systematic review of the impact of sport-based interventions on the psychological well-being of people in prison. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 12, 50e61. World Health Organisation. (2016). Physical activity strategy for the WHO european region. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0014/ 311360/Physical-activity-strategy-2016-2025.pdf .",
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AU - Woods, David

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N1 - Reference text: Amorose, A. J. (2007). Coaching effectiveness. In M. S. Hagger, & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 209e227). Leeds: Human Kinetics. Amtmann, J., & Kukay, J. (2016). Fitness changes after an 8-week fitness coaching program at a regional youth detention facility. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 22(1), 75e83. Arent, S., Landers, M., & Etnier, J. (2000). The effects of exercise on mood in older adults: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Ageing and Physical Activity, 8, 407e430. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2015). The health of Australia's prisoners 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Baldwin, C. K. (2000). Theory, program and outcomes: Assessing the challenges of evaluating at-risk youth recreation programs. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 18, 19e33. Battaglia, C., di Cagno, A., Fiorilli, G., Giombini, A., Borrione, P., Baralla, F., et al. (2015). Participation in a 9-month selected physical exercise programme enhances psychological well-being in a prison population. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 25(5), 343e354. Biddle, S. J., & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: A review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 886e895. Biddle, S. J., Mutrie, N., & Gorely, T. (2015). Psychology of physical Activity: Determinants, well-being and interventions. Routledge. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77e101. Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. Oxford University Press. Buckaloo, B. J., Krug, K. S., & Nelson, K. B. (2009). Exercise and the low-security inmate changes in depression, stress, and anxiety. The Prison Journal, 89(3), 328e343. Cameron, M., & MacDougall, C. J. (2000). Crime prevention through sport and physical activity (Vol. 165). Australian Institute of Criminology. Cashin, A., Potter, E., & Butler, T. (2008). The relationship between exercise and hopelessness in prison. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15, 66e71. Coalter, F. (2009). The value of Sport: Crime reduction and community safety. London: Sport England/UK Sport. Coalter, F. (2013). Sport for development: What game are we playing? Routledge. Collins, M., Henry, I., Houlihan, B., & Buller, J. (1999). Sport and social exclusion. Loughborough: Loughborough University. Council of Europe. (2001). Recommendation No. R. (92) 13 REV of the committee of ministers of members States on the revised European sports charter (Strasbourg, France). De Viggiani, N. (2012). Trying to be something you are not: Masculine performances within a prison setting. Men and Masculinities, 15(3), 271e291. Dubberley, S., Parry, O., & Baker, S. A. (2011). Mending fences: Reparation and the reorientation of young people in the secure estate. Criminal Justice Studies, 24(4), 337e350. Durcan, G. (2016). Mental health and criminal justice. Views from consultations across England & Wales. Centre for Mental Health. Fazel, S., Hayes, A. J., Bartellas, K., Clerici, M., & Trestman, R. (2016). Mental health of prisoners: Prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(9), 871e881. Fox, K. R. (1999). The influence of physical activity on mental well-being. Public Health Nutrition, 2(3a), 411e418. Gallant, D., Sherry, E., & Nicholson, M. (2014). Recreation or rehabilitation? Managing sport for development programs with prison populations. Sport Management Review, 18(1), 45e56. Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., Amoura, S., & Baldes, B. (2010). Influence of coaches' autonomy support on athletes' motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 155e16. Gunnell, K. E., Crocker, P. R., Mack, D. E., Wilson, P. M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2014). Goal contents, motivation, psychological need satisfaction, well-being and physical activity: A test of self-determination theory over 6 months. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 19e29. Hartmann, D. (2001). Notes on midnight basketball and the cultural politics of recreation, race and at-risk Urban youth. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 25, 339e372. Hartmann, D., & Kwauk, C. (2011). Sport and Development: An overview, critique, and reconstruction. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 35(3), 284e305. Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Postmes, T., & Haslam, C. (2009). Social identity, health and well being: An emerging agenda for applied psychology. Applied Psychology, 58(1), 1e23. Holt, N. L. (2016). Positive youth development through sport. Routledge. Jones, G. J., Edwards, M. B., Bocarro, J. N., Bunds, K. S., & Smith, J. W. (2017). An integrative review of sport-based youth development literature. Sport in Society, 20(1), 161e179. Kay, T. (2009). Developing through sport: Evidencing sport impacts on young people. Sport in Society, 12(9), 1177e1191. Kehily, M. J. (2007). Understanding youth: Perspectives, identities and practices. Youth: Perspectives and Practice. London: Sage/The Open University. Lancet. (2016). Physical activity 2016: Progress and challenges progress in physical activity over the olympic quadrennium. 388:1326e1336. Retrieved from http:// www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(16)30581-5.pdf. Leberman, S. (2007). Voices behind the walls: Female offenders and experiential learning. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 7, 113e120. Lewis, G., & Meek, R. (2012). Sport and physical education across the secure estate: An exploration of policy and practice. Criminal Justice Matters, 90(1), 32e34. Lubans, D. R., Plotnikoff, R. C., & Lubans, N. J. (2012). Review: A systematic review of the impact of physical activity programmes on social and emotional well-being in at-risk youth. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17(1), 2e13. Lubans, D., Richards, J., Hillman, C., Faulkner, G., Beauchamp, M., Nilsson, M., et al. (2016). Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: A systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics, 138(3), e20161642. Mack, D. E., Wilson, P. M., Gunnell, K. E., Gilchrist, J. D., Kowalski, K. C., & Crocker, P. R. (2012). Health-enhancing physical activity: associations with markers of well-being. Applied Psychology: Health andWell-Being, 4(2), 127e150. Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: A motivational model. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21, 883e904. Martin, R. E., Adamson, S., Korchinski, M., Granger-Brown, A., Ramsden, V. R., Buxton, J. A., et al. (2013). Incarcerated women develop a nutrition and fitness program: Participatory research. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 9(3), 142e150. Martos-Garcıa, D., Devıs-Devıs, J., & Sparkes, A. C. (2009). Sport and physical activity in a high security Spanish prison: An ethnographic study of multiple meanings. Sport, Education and Society, 14, 77e96. Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. American Psychological Association. Mason, P., Curl, A., & Kearns, A. (2016). Domains and levels of physical activity are linked to adult mental health and well-being in deprived neighbourhoods: A cross-sectional study. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 11, 19e29. Meek, R., & Lewis, G. (2014a). The impact of a sports initiative for young men in prison: Staff and participant perspectives. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 38(2), 95e123. Meek, R., & Lewis, G. E. (2014b). Promoting well-being and desistance through sport and physical activity: The opportunities and barriers experienced by women in english prisons. Women & Criminal Justice, 24(2), 151e172. Moore, G., Audrey, S., Barker, M., Bond, L., Bonell, C., Hardeman, W., et al. (2015). Process evaluation of complex interventions. Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ, 2015;350:h1258. Nichols, G. (2004). Crime and punishment and sports development. Leisure Studies, 23(2), 177e194. Nichols, G. (2007). Sport and crime reduction: The role of sports in tackling youth crime. Abingdon: Routledge. Nichols, G., & Taylor, P. (1996). West Yorkshire sports counselling: Final evaluation report. Halifax: West Yorkshire Sports Counselling Association. Norman, M. (2017). Sport in the underlife of a total institution: Social control and resistance in Canadian prisons. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52(5), 598e614. Oakes, P. J., Haslam, S. A., & Turner, J. C. (1994). Stereotyping and social reality. Oxford: Blackwell. Parker, A., Meek, R., & Lewis, G. (2014). Sport in a youth prison: Male young offenders' experiences of a sporting intervention. Journal of Youth Studies, 17(3), 381e396. Parkinson, M. (1998). Combating social exclusion: Lessons from area-based programmes in Europe (p. 37). Bristol: Policy Press. Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation Methods: Integrating theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Prochaska, J. O., Redding, C. A., & Evers, K. E. (2008). The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 97e117). Jossey-Bass. Reicher, S. D., & Haslam, S. A. (2006). Rethinking the psychology of tyranny: The BBC prison experiment. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 1e40. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141e166. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719. Sandford, R. A., Armour, K. M., & Warmington, P. C. (2006). Re-engaging disaffected youth through physical activity programmes. British Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 251e271. Sharp, C., Schagen, I., & Scott, E. (2004). Playing for success: The longer term impact. A multilevel analysis (No. RB593). Nottingham, UK: National Foundation for Educational Research. Sparkes, A. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and problems of criteria: Implications for sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 363e386. Stewart-Brown, S., & Janmohamed, K. (2008). Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale. User guide. Version, 1. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Tajfel, H. (1972). Experiments in a vacuum. In J. Israel, & H. Tajfel (Eds.), The context of social psychology: A critical assessment (pp. 69e119). London: Academic Press. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin, & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33e47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. Taylor, P., Crow, I., Irvine, D., & Nichols, G. (1999). Demanding physical programmes for young offenders under probation supervision. Research Findings 91. London: Home Office. Travis, J., Western, B., & Redburn, F. S. (2014). The growth of incarceration in the United States: Exploring causes and consequences. National Academies Press. Turner, J. C. (1985). Social categorization and the self-concept: A social cognitive theory of group behaviour. In E. J. Lawler (Ed.), Advances in group processes: Theory and research (vol. 2, pp. 77e122). Greenwich, CT: JAI. West, S. T., & Crompton, J. L. (2001). A review of the impact of adventure programs on at-risk youth. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 19(2), 113e140. Williams, D., Collingwood, L., Coles, J., & Schmeer, S. (2015). Evaluating a rugby sport intervention programme for young offenders. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 5(1), 51e64. Woodall, J., Dixey, R., & South, J. (2014). Control and choice in english prisons: Developing health-promoting prisons. Health Promotion International, 29(3), 474e482. Woods, D., Breslin, G., & Hassan, D. (2017). A systematic review of the impact of sport-based interventions on the psychological well-being of people in prison. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 12, 50e61. World Health Organisation. (2016). Physical activity strategy for the WHO european region. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0014/ 311360/Physical-activity-strategy-2016-2025.pdf .

PY - 2017/9/20

Y1 - 2017/9/20

N2 - Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to review the impact of sport-based interventions (SBI) on the psychological well-being of people in prison. Secondary aims were to identify whether psychological theory of health behaviour change was included in the design and evaluation of interventions, and the inclusion of additional non-sporting components.Methods: A textual narrative synthesis followed a systematic search of six databases, based on PRISMA guidelines, and conducted during April 2016. Inclusion criteria were people in prison, aged 15 or over, involved in a facilitated SBI. The outcome was impact on psychological well-being and all study designs were considered. Search results were reduced from 10,749 studies, to 14 (nine quantitative and five qualitative) after screening.Results: Interventions lasted from six weeks to nine months, with nine being multi-component. Apositive affect on psychological well-being or related variable was reported in twelve studies. However, there were inconsistencies in measurement, a lack of baseline data and limited follow-up. Health behaviour change theories were a notable omission across the interventions.Conclusions: SBIs display a positive trend toward beneficial impact on psychological well-being within prisons. However, future studies should aim to address identified measurement inconsistencies and weak research design, and also include psychological change theory in their design. This will better enable practitioners and researchers alike to identify the key psychological mechanisms impacted and how, subsequently implementing SBIs with increased understanding and confidence in their contribution to prisoner psychological well-being.

AB - Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to review the impact of sport-based interventions (SBI) on the psychological well-being of people in prison. Secondary aims were to identify whether psychological theory of health behaviour change was included in the design and evaluation of interventions, and the inclusion of additional non-sporting components.Methods: A textual narrative synthesis followed a systematic search of six databases, based on PRISMA guidelines, and conducted during April 2016. Inclusion criteria were people in prison, aged 15 or over, involved in a facilitated SBI. The outcome was impact on psychological well-being and all study designs were considered. Search results were reduced from 10,749 studies, to 14 (nine quantitative and five qualitative) after screening.Results: Interventions lasted from six weeks to nine months, with nine being multi-component. Apositive affect on psychological well-being or related variable was reported in twelve studies. However, there were inconsistencies in measurement, a lack of baseline data and limited follow-up. Health behaviour change theories were a notable omission across the interventions.Conclusions: SBIs display a positive trend toward beneficial impact on psychological well-being within prisons. However, future studies should aim to address identified measurement inconsistencies and weak research design, and also include psychological change theory in their design. This will better enable practitioners and researchers alike to identify the key psychological mechanisms impacted and how, subsequently implementing SBIs with increased understanding and confidence in their contribution to prisoner psychological well-being.

KW - Sport

KW - Physical activity

KW - Mental health

KW - Resilience

KW - Exercise

U2 - 10.1016/j.mhpa.2017.09.005

DO - 10.1016/j.mhpa.2017.09.005

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 152

EP - 162

JO - Mental Health and Physical Activity

T2 - Mental Health and Physical Activity

JF - Mental Health and Physical Activity

SN - 1755-2966

ER -