Polymorphic Variants in 5′-UTR Regions of the RAD51 Gene are Associated With RAD51 Expression and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC): A Case-Control Study

Mohammad Al Hamad, Haitham Kussaibi, Khaled R. Alkharsah, Ahmed Alsayyah, Mohammed El Shawarby, Dalal Al Tamimi, Munther Alomari, Hamid A. Bakshi, Murtaza M. Tambuwala, Mazhar S. Al Zoubi

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Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease at morphologic and molecular levels, which is considered the most commonly occurring cancer in women. RAD51, a DNA-repairing protein, involves homologous recombination and has a vital role in genome stability. Polymorphism of the RAD51 gene, and its overexpression, has been proposed to be associated with the development of breast cancer. Overexpression of RAD51 in many types of human cancer including metastatic breast cancer may signify its potential use as a biomarker. Considering the numerous reports on the role of the 5'-UTR-RAD51 polymorphism in breast cancer, this study aimed to investigate the utility of RAD51 gene expression and its variants G135C and G172T as a possible foretelling factor of breast cancer development. DNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry of RAD51 were conducted on 103 samples from patients diagnosed with sporadic breast cancer and 80 samples from a control group. The results demonstrated that the RAD51 variants, G135C and G172T, were significantly presented in the breast cancer tissue compared with the control group. RAD51 expression was mainly shown in the cytoplasm of malignant cells (56% of cases) and significantly correlated with p53 and G135C, C135C variants. Moreover, the occurrence of the G172T variant was significantly associated with the expression of estrogen receptor. Interestingly, 21/26 (81%) of the triple-negative breast cancer showed G135C and C135C genotypes that were significantly associated with the expression of RAD51 (73%). In conclusion, the G135C and C135C variants together with the cytoplasmic expression of RAD51 may have clinical potential as a prognostic predictor for breast cancer development and aggressiveness. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.]
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)270-276
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology
Issue number4
Early online date6 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 1 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.


  • G135C
  • G172T
  • RAD51
  • breast cancer
  • triple-negative breast cancer
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Rad51 Recombinase/biosynthesis
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • 5' Untranslated Regions
  • Neoplasm Proteins/biosynthesis
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/enzymology


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