This chapter provides an overview of how the planning and management of the stadium can impact on the customer experience. The task of ensuring that the customer’s experience within the ‘sportscape’ (Wakefield, Blodgett and Sloan, 1996) is memorable is one strategy to increasing stadium attendance and customer satisfaction. In the business of stadium management many experiential aspects are influenced by aesthetics, space and accessibility within the built environment. The increasing professionalization of sport has seen stadium developments begin to reflect the requirements of the sport business. Modern stadia are more than just sporting facilities and their services, sporting and non-sporting now have to cater for more than one type of customer. These stadia can also assist in the acquisition of major events to cities and regions. For instance, the staging of the Olympic Games has led to many host cities building or redeveloping their stadium offer in order to meet event requirements. These requirements are one of a number of factors that have led to a proliferation of stadium development in many countries. This chapter will examine strategic management considerations for providing optimal customer experiences to ensure long term benefit to the sport business. First this chapter will review the key drivers of stadium developments. Designing stadia to be accessible, spacious and aesthetically pleasing is important in order to provide the setting for enhancing customer experiences (Bitner, 1992; Bodet, 2009; Wakefield et al, 1996). These designs provide the link to allow operations to support memorable experience creation and will be the focus of the second part of the chapter. The final part of this chapter will review how Arsenal Football Club designed the Emirates Stadium to cater for their supporters with disabilities (‘purple members’). This case forms a practical example of the issues discussed.
|Title of host publication||Managing Sport Business: An Introduction|
|Place of Publication||London|
|Publication status||Published - 13 Oct 2011|
Reference text: BBC Online. (2006). Timeline: the new Wembley. Accessed at http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/4735072.stm on 21st November, 2009.
Beauchamp, N., Newman, R, Graney, M.J. and Barrett, K. (2009). Facility management. In L.P. Masteralexis, C.A. Barr, M.A. Hums (Eds.). Principles and Practice of Sport Management (third edition), pp273-293. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Bitner, M.J. (1992). Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing 56(April), 57-71.
Bodet, G. (2009). ‘Give me a stadium and I will fill it’ An analysis of the marketing management of Stade Français Paris rugby club. International Journal of Sport Marketing and Sponsorship, 10(3), 252-262.
Cheek, L.W., Daniels, B. and Pagel, P. (2009). Art + Architecture. Arlington, TX: Dallas Cowboys.
Deloitte. (2009) Lost in Translation: Football Money League: Annual Review of Football Finances. Accessed at http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/cda/doc/content/UK_SGB_DeloitteFML2009.pdf on July 21, 2009.
Gratton, C., Shibli, S., and Coleman, R. (2005). Sport and economic regeneration in cities. Urban Studies 42, 5/6: 985-999.
Hankinson, G. (2001). Location branding: a study of the branding practices of 12 English cities. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 9, 127-142.
Holbrook, M.B. and Hirschman, E.C. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer feelings, fantasies and fun. Journal of Consumer Research. 9, 132-140.
Kang, C.N., Chou, Y.H. (2009). An examination of the relationship between experiential marketing, participative motivation, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: The National Taiwan University indoor swimming pool. Paper presented at the European Association of Sport Management Conference, Amsterdam, 16th-19th September 2009.
Kitchin, P.J. (Ed.) (2009). Arsenal Business Cases. London: London Metropolitan University.
Langston, C. and Lauge-Kristensen, R. (2002). Strategic Management of Built Facilities. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Paramio, J.L., Buraimo, B., Campos, C. (2008). From modern to postmodern: the development of football stadia in Europe. Sport in Society, 11(5), 517-534.
Schmitt, B.H. (1999). Experiential Marketing. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Schwarz, E.C., Shibli, S., and Hall, S. (2009). Sport Facility Operations Management. Oxon: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
Sheard, R. (2001). Sports Architecture. London: Spon Press.
Shilbury, D., Westerbeek H., and Quick, S, (2003). Strategic Sports Marketing (second edition). Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Thompson, E. and Kolsky, E. (2004) How to approach customer experience management. Gartner Reports: G00125606. Stamford, CT: Gartner.
University of Leicester, (2002). Fact Sheet 2: Football Stadia After Taylor, Accessed at http://www.le.ac.uk/sociology/css/resources/factsheets/fs2.html on 14th February 2010.
Wakefield, K.L. and Blodgett, J.G. (1994). The importance of servicescapes in leisure service settings. Journal of Services Marketing 8(3), 66-76.
Wakefield, K.L. and Blodgett, J.G. (1996). The effect of the servicescape on customer’s behavioural intentions in leisure settings. Journal of Services Marketing 10(6), 45-61.
Wakefield, K.L., Blodgett, J.G. and Sloan, H.J. (1996). Measurement and management of the sportscape. Journal of Sport Management 10, 15-31.
Walters, G. and Kitchin, P.J. (2009). Stakeholder Management and Sport Facilities: A Case Study of the Emirates Stadium. Birkbeck Sport Business Centre Case Study, 1(2). Available at http://www.sportbusinesscentre.com/casestudy/Walters%20and%20Kitchin on 14th February, 2010.
Westerbeek, H. Smith, A. Turner, P. Emery, P. Green, C. and van Leeuwen, L. (2006). Managing Sport Facilities and Major Events. Oxon: Routledge.
Versi, G. (2009a). Spoiling corporate guests. In Kitchin, P.J. (Ed.) (2009). Arsenal Business Cases (pp 46-49). London: London Metropolitan University.
Versi, G. (2009b). VIP Guests. In Kitchin, P.J. (Ed.) (2009). Arsenal Business Cases (pp 50-52). London: London Metropolitan University.
- experiential marketing
- stadium management
- sport business