Place, people and interpretation: issues of migrant labour and tourism imagery in Ireland

Tom Baum, Niamh Hearns, Frances Devine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper addresses the contribution of tourism's workforce to destination image and branding and considers the role that employees play in visitors' interpretation of their experience of place. The focus of this paper is on the contribution of working people to the image of place and the potential for contradiction in imagery as the people who inhabit and work within a place change over time. At the same time, those consuming the place as visitors may well have expectations that are fixed in traditional and outdated imagery. The location of this paper is Ireland where the traditional marketing of the tourism brand has given core roles to images of people and the friendliness of Irish hospitality, represented by traditional and homogeneous images. Interpretation of Ireland as a destination, in the tourist literature, by tour guides and within the cultural heritage sector generally, has widely perpetuated these traditional and, arguably, clichéd images. Recent growth in the "Celtic tiger" economy has induced unprecedented and large scale migration from countries across the globe to Ireland, particularly into the tourism sector. This paper raises questions with regard to interpretation and branding of a country as a tourist destination in the light of major changes within the demography and ethnicity of its tourism workforce.
LanguageEnglish
Pages39-48
JournalTourism Recreation Research
Volume32
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 29 Mar 2007

Fingerprint

Migrant labor
Imagery
Tourism
Ireland
Workforce
Branding
Globe
Destination branding
Tourist destination
Marketing
Ethnic groups
Demography
Destination image
Tour guide
Tourists
Cultural heritage
Destination
Hospitality
Employees
Tourism sector

Keywords

  • tourism
  • migrant labour
  • Ireland
  • brand marketing
  • interpretation
  • authenticity
  • hospitality industry

Cite this

@article{666980dd6d5c4543a6772d32acec8657,
title = "Place, people and interpretation: issues of migrant labour and tourism imagery in Ireland",
abstract = "This paper addresses the contribution of tourism's workforce to destination image and branding and considers the role that employees play in visitors' interpretation of their experience of place. The focus of this paper is on the contribution of working people to the image of place and the potential for contradiction in imagery as the people who inhabit and work within a place change over time. At the same time, those consuming the place as visitors may well have expectations that are fixed in traditional and outdated imagery. The location of this paper is Ireland where the traditional marketing of the tourism brand has given core roles to images of people and the friendliness of Irish hospitality, represented by traditional and homogeneous images. Interpretation of Ireland as a destination, in the tourist literature, by tour guides and within the cultural heritage sector generally, has widely perpetuated these traditional and, arguably, clich{\'e}d images. Recent growth in the {"}Celtic tiger{"} economy has induced unprecedented and large scale migration from countries across the globe to Ireland, particularly into the tourism sector. This paper raises questions with regard to interpretation and branding of a country as a tourist destination in the light of major changes within the demography and ethnicity of its tourism workforce.",
keywords = "tourism, migrant labour, Ireland, brand marketing, interpretation, authenticity, hospitality industry",
author = "Tom Baum and Niamh Hearns and Frances Devine",
note = "Reference text: ANON (2005). Flood of Migrant Workers Turns out to be a Trickle, www.personneltoday.com—Accessed on March 18, 2005. ATELJEVIC, I. and DOORNE, S. (2002). Representing New Zealand: Tourism Imagery and Ideology. Annals of Tourism Research 29: 648–667.[CrossRef] BATESON, J. and HOFFMAN, D. (1999). Managing Services Marketing. Fort Worth. The Dryden Press. BAUM, T. (2002). Making or Breaking the Tourist Experience: The Role of Human Resource Management. In Ryan, C. (ed) The Tourist Experience. London. International Thomson: 94–111. BAUM, T. (2006). Human Resource Management for Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure.: An International Perspective. London. International Thomson. BIRD, B. (1989). Langkawi—from Mahsuri to Mahathir: Tourism for whom? Kuala Lumpur. INSAN. BLACK, R. and WEILER, B. (2005). Quality Assurance and Regulatory Mechanisms in the Tour Guiding Industry: A Systematic Review. Journal of Tourism Studies 16(1): 24–37. BOROCZ, J. (1996). Leisure Migration: A Sociological Study of Tourism. Oxford. Pergamon Press. BRITTON, R. (1979). The Image of the Third World in Tourism Marketing. Annals of Tourism Research 6: 318–329.[CrossRef] BUTLER, R. (1998). Tartan Mythology: The Traditional Tourist Image of Scotland. In Ringer, G. (ed) Destinations: Cultural Landscapes of Tourism. London. Routledge: 121–139. CASTLES, S. and MILLER, M. (1998). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (Second edition). New York. The Guildford Press CAWLEY, M. (2003). The Rural Idyll. In Hourihane, J. (ed) Engaging Space.: People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective. Dublin. The Lilliput Press: 61–74. COHEN, E. (1988). Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 15: 371–386.[CrossRef] COHEN, E. (1995). Contemporary Tourism—Trends and Challenges: Sustainable Authenticity or Contrived Post-modernity. In Butler, R. and Pearce, D (eds) Change in Tourism: People, Places, Processes. London. Routledge: 12–29. COULTER, C. and COLEMAN, S. (eds) (2003). The End of Irish History? Critical Approaches to the Celtic Tiger. Manchester. Manchester University Press. CUKIER, J. (1998). Tourism Employment and Shifts in the Determination of Social Status in Bali. In Ringer, G. (ed) Destinations: Cultural Landscapes of Tourism. London. Routledge: 63–79. DANIEL, Y. P. (1996). Tourism Dance Performances: Authenticity and Creativity. Annals of Tourism Research 23(4): 780–797.[CrossRef] DANN, G. (1996). The People of Tourist Brochures. In Selwyn, T. (ed) The Tourist Image. Myths and Myth Making in Tourism. Chichester. John Wiley: 61–81. DEEGAN, J. (2005). A Long-term Perspective on Irish Tourism Policy. In Conference Proceedings on Tourism and Hospitality Research in Ireland: Exploring the Issues, June, University of Ulster, Portrush. DEEGAN, J. and DINEEN, D. (1997). Tourism Policy and Performance: The Irish experience. London. International Thomson. DEVINE, F., BAUM, T., HEARNS, N. and DEVINE, A. (2006). Cultural Diversity in Hospitality Work: the Northern Ireland Experience. International Journal of Human Resource Management 18(2): 333–349.[Taylor & Francis Online] ERB, M. (2000). Understanding Tourists: Interpretations from Indonesia. Annals of Tourism Research 27: 709–736.[CrossRef] EUROBAROMETER (2005). Urban Audit Perception Survey. Brussels. Eurobarometer, July, 2005 F{\'A}ILTE IRELAND (2005a). A Human Resource Development Strategy for Irish Tourism. Competing Through People, 2005–2012. Dublin. F{\'a}ilte Ireland. F{\'A}ILTE IRELAND (2005b). Cultural Diversity Strategy and Implementation Plan. Dublin. F{\'a}ilte Ireland. FAS (2005). National Skills Bulletin 2005. Dublin. F{\'a}s. FITZGERALD, J. (2004). Ireland: An Ageing Multicultural Economy. Dublin. ESRI FOLEY, A. and FAHY, J. (2004). Incongruity between Expression and Experience: The Role of Imagery in Supporting the Positioning of a Tourism Destination Brand. Journal of Brand Management 11: 209–217.[CrossRef] GIBSON, A. (1994). Tourism Brand Ireland: Positioning a Country. In Cunningham, A., Ward, J. and Kilbride, C. (eds) Studies in Marketing. Dublin. Marketing Institute of Ireland: 61–102. GUSTAFSON, P. (2002). Tourism and Seasonal Retirement Migration. Annals of Tourism Research 29: 899–918.[CrossRef] HOCHSCHILD, A. R. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling. Berkley. University of California Press. HOWARD, J., THWAITES, R. and SMITH, B. (2001). Investigating the Roles of the Indigenous Tour Guide. Journal of Tourism Studies 12(2): 32–39. HOLLINSHEAD, K. (1996). Marketing and Metaphysical Realism: The Disidentification of Aboriginal Life and Traditions Through Tourism. In Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (eds) Tourism and Indigenous Peoples. London. International Thomson Business Press: 308–348. JARMAN, N. (2004). Migrant Workers in Northern Ireland. Labour Market Bulletin 18: 51–59. KIRBY, P., GIBBONS, L. and CRONIN, M. (eds) (2002). Reinventing Ireland: Culture, Society and the Global Economy. London. Pluto Press. LAZARIDIS, G. and WICKENS, E. (1999). “Us” and the “Others”: Ethnic Minorities in Greece. Annals of Tourism Research 26: 632–655.[CrossRef] LEE, J. J. (1999). A Sense of Place in the Celtic Tiger? In Bohan, H. and Kennedy, G. (eds) Are We Forgetting Something? Our Society in the New Millennium. Dublin. Veritas: 71–93. MACCANNELL, D. (1973). Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Settings. American Journal of Sociology 79: 589–603.[CrossRef] MACCANNELL, D. (1976) The Tourist. New York. Schocken Books. MCLAUGHLIN, D. (2005) Immigration helps Economy's Performance. The Irish Times: Business this Week. June 17: 5. MCMANUS, R. (2003). Urban Dreams—Urban Nightmares. In Hourihane, J. (ed) Engaging Spaces: People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective. Dublin. The Lilliput Press: 30–44. MCMANUS, R. (2005). Identity crisis? Heritage Construction, Tourism and Place Marketing in Ireland. In McCarthy, M. (ed) Ireland's Heritages: Critical Perspectives on Memory and Identity. Aldershot. Ashgate: 235–250. MCWILLIAMS, D. (2005). The Pope's Children: Ireland's New Elite. Dublin. Gill and Macmillan. MELIA, D. and KENNEDY, E. (2005). Cultural Diversity. A Management Perspective. Dublin. Tourism Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology. MONK, J. and ALEXANDER, C. (1986). Free Port Fallout: Gender, Employment and Migration on Margarita Island. Annals of Tourism Research 13: 393–413.[CrossRef] NICKSON, D., WARHURST, C. and WITZ, A. (2003). The Labour of Aesthetics and the Aesthetics of Organization. Organization 10: 33–54.[CrossRef] O'CONNOR, B. (1993). Myths and Mirrors: Tourist Images and National Identity. In O'Connor, B. and Cronin, M. (eds) Tourism in Ireland: A Critical Analysis. Cork. Cork University Press. O'LEARY, S. and DEEGAN, J. (2003). People, Pace, Place: Qualitative and Quantitative Images of Ireland as a Tourism Destination in France. Journal of Vacation Marketing 9: 213–225.[CrossRef] PECHENART, J. (2003). Tongue-tied: Language, Culture and Changing Trends in Irish Tourism Employment. In Cronin, M. and O'Connor, B. (eds) Irish Tourism Image Culture and Identity. Clevedon. Channel View Publications: 241–26Z PHILIPS, D. and THOMAS, C. (eds) (2001). Effeithiau Twristiaeth ar yr Iaith Gymraeg yng Ngogledd-Orllewin Cymru/The Effects of Tourism on the Welsh Language in North-West Wales. Aberystwyth. Canolfan Uwchefrydiau Cymreig a Cheltaidd Prifysgol Cymru. PRENTICE, R. and ANDERSEN, V. (2000). Evoking Ireland: Modelling Tourist Propensity. Annals of Tourism Research 27: 490–516.[CrossRef] PRITCHARD, A. and MORGAN, N. (1996). Selling the Celtic Arc to the USA: A Comparative Analysis of the Destination Brochure Images Used in the Marketing of Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Journal of Vacation Marketing 2: 346–365.[CrossRef] QUINN, B. (1991). The Promotion of Ireland as a Tourist Destination in Continental Europe. Paper presented at the fifth workshop on social science research on ‘The Irish in the “new” Europe: Context, trends and issues’. Ireland. Institute of Irish Studies, University of Liverpool. RAINS, S. (2003). Home from Home: Diasporic Images of Ireland in Film and Tourism. In Cronin, M. and O'Connor, B. (eds) Irish Tourism Image Culture and Identity. Clevedon. Channel View Publications: 196–214. REISINGER, Y. and STEINER, C. (2006). Reconceptualizing Object Authenticity. Annals of Tourism Research 33: 65–86.[CrossRef] ROSELLO, M. (2001). Postcolonial Hospitality. The Immigrant as Guest. Stanford. Stanford University Press. SAAVEDRA, J. (2005). Culture Club. Hotel and Catering Review, September, 7, 2005. SALAMONE, F. A. (1997). Authenticity in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 24(2): 305–321.[CrossRef] SCARLES, C. (2004). Mediating Landscapes: The Processes and Practices of Image Construction in Tourist Brochures in Scotland. Tourist Studies 4(1): 43–67.[CrossRef] SHURMER-SMITH, P. and HANNAM, K. (1994). Worlds of Desire, Realms of Power: A Cultural Geography. London. Arnold. TOURISM IRELAND (2006a). The Ireland Marketing Toolkit Your Guide to Marketing Overseas in 2006. Dublin/Coleraine. Tourism Ireland. TOURISM IRELAND (2006b) Advertisments. Dublin/The Courtyard Studio. Tourism Ireland. URRY, J. (1999). Sociology Byond Societies: Mobilities for the 21st Century. London. Routledge. WANG, N. (1999). Rethinking Authenticity in Tourism Experience. Annals of Tourism Research 26: 349–370.[CrossRef] WARHURST, C., NICKSON, D., WITZ, A. and CULLEN, A. M. (2000). Aesthetic Labour in Interactive Service Work: Some Case Study Evidence from the ‘New Glasgow’. Service Industries Journal 20(3): 1–18.[Taylor & Francis Online] WATSON, L. G. and KOPACHEVSKY, J. (1994). Interpretations of Tourism as Commodity. Annals of Tourism Research 21: 643–660.[CrossRef] Websites Visited http://www.tourismireland.com/corporate/publications/files/TI_Understanding_OurBrand.pdf—Accessed on 13 April 2006. http://www.tourismirelandimagery.com/default.asp—Accessed on 13 April 2006. Cited by Amy E. Potter. (2016) “She goes into character as the lady of the house”: tour guides, performance, and the Southern plantation. Journal of Heritage Tourism 11:3, 250-261. Online publication date: 12-Nov-2015. Abdelkader Ababneh. (2016) Tourist Guides and Job Related Problems, Analysis and Evidence from Jordan. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism 0:0, 1-18. Online publication date: 13-Jun-2016. Dawn Burton, Mary Klemm. (2011) Whiteness, ethnic minorities and advertising in travel brochures. The Service Industries Journal 31:5, 679-693. Online publication date: 15-Oct-2010. Haiyan Kong, Catherine Cheung, Tom Baum. (2009) Are Tour Guides in China Ready for the Booming Tourism Industry?. Journal of China Tourism Research 5:1, 65-76. Online publication date: 13-Oct-2010.",
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Place, people and interpretation: issues of migrant labour and tourism imagery in Ireland. / Baum, Tom; Hearns, Niamh; Devine, Frances.

In: Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 32, No. 3, 29.03.2007, p. 39-48.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Place, people and interpretation: issues of migrant labour and tourism imagery in Ireland

AU - Baum, Tom

AU - Hearns, Niamh

AU - Devine, Frances

N1 - Reference text: ANON (2005). Flood of Migrant Workers Turns out to be a Trickle, www.personneltoday.com—Accessed on March 18, 2005. ATELJEVIC, I. and DOORNE, S. (2002). Representing New Zealand: Tourism Imagery and Ideology. Annals of Tourism Research 29: 648–667.[CrossRef] BATESON, J. and HOFFMAN, D. (1999). Managing Services Marketing. Fort Worth. The Dryden Press. BAUM, T. (2002). Making or Breaking the Tourist Experience: The Role of Human Resource Management. In Ryan, C. (ed) The Tourist Experience. London. International Thomson: 94–111. BAUM, T. (2006). Human Resource Management for Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure.: An International Perspective. London. International Thomson. BIRD, B. (1989). Langkawi—from Mahsuri to Mahathir: Tourism for whom? Kuala Lumpur. INSAN. BLACK, R. and WEILER, B. (2005). Quality Assurance and Regulatory Mechanisms in the Tour Guiding Industry: A Systematic Review. Journal of Tourism Studies 16(1): 24–37. BOROCZ, J. (1996). Leisure Migration: A Sociological Study of Tourism. Oxford. Pergamon Press. BRITTON, R. (1979). The Image of the Third World in Tourism Marketing. Annals of Tourism Research 6: 318–329.[CrossRef] BUTLER, R. (1998). Tartan Mythology: The Traditional Tourist Image of Scotland. In Ringer, G. (ed) Destinations: Cultural Landscapes of Tourism. London. Routledge: 121–139. CASTLES, S. and MILLER, M. (1998). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (Second edition). New York. The Guildford Press CAWLEY, M. (2003). The Rural Idyll. In Hourihane, J. (ed) Engaging Space.: People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective. Dublin. The Lilliput Press: 61–74. COHEN, E. (1988). Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 15: 371–386.[CrossRef] COHEN, E. (1995). Contemporary Tourism—Trends and Challenges: Sustainable Authenticity or Contrived Post-modernity. In Butler, R. and Pearce, D (eds) Change in Tourism: People, Places, Processes. London. Routledge: 12–29. COULTER, C. and COLEMAN, S. (eds) (2003). The End of Irish History? Critical Approaches to the Celtic Tiger. Manchester. Manchester University Press. CUKIER, J. (1998). Tourism Employment and Shifts in the Determination of Social Status in Bali. In Ringer, G. (ed) Destinations: Cultural Landscapes of Tourism. London. Routledge: 63–79. DANIEL, Y. P. (1996). Tourism Dance Performances: Authenticity and Creativity. Annals of Tourism Research 23(4): 780–797.[CrossRef] DANN, G. (1996). The People of Tourist Brochures. In Selwyn, T. (ed) The Tourist Image. Myths and Myth Making in Tourism. Chichester. John Wiley: 61–81. DEEGAN, J. (2005). A Long-term Perspective on Irish Tourism Policy. In Conference Proceedings on Tourism and Hospitality Research in Ireland: Exploring the Issues, June, University of Ulster, Portrush. DEEGAN, J. and DINEEN, D. (1997). Tourism Policy and Performance: The Irish experience. London. International Thomson. DEVINE, F., BAUM, T., HEARNS, N. and DEVINE, A. (2006). Cultural Diversity in Hospitality Work: the Northern Ireland Experience. International Journal of Human Resource Management 18(2): 333–349.[Taylor & Francis Online] ERB, M. (2000). Understanding Tourists: Interpretations from Indonesia. Annals of Tourism Research 27: 709–736.[CrossRef] EUROBAROMETER (2005). Urban Audit Perception Survey. Brussels. Eurobarometer, July, 2005 FÁILTE IRELAND (2005a). A Human Resource Development Strategy for Irish Tourism. Competing Through People, 2005–2012. Dublin. Fáilte Ireland. FÁILTE IRELAND (2005b). Cultural Diversity Strategy and Implementation Plan. Dublin. Fáilte Ireland. FAS (2005). National Skills Bulletin 2005. Dublin. Fás. FITZGERALD, J. (2004). Ireland: An Ageing Multicultural Economy. Dublin. ESRI FOLEY, A. and FAHY, J. (2004). Incongruity between Expression and Experience: The Role of Imagery in Supporting the Positioning of a Tourism Destination Brand. Journal of Brand Management 11: 209–217.[CrossRef] GIBSON, A. (1994). Tourism Brand Ireland: Positioning a Country. In Cunningham, A., Ward, J. and Kilbride, C. (eds) Studies in Marketing. Dublin. Marketing Institute of Ireland: 61–102. GUSTAFSON, P. (2002). Tourism and Seasonal Retirement Migration. Annals of Tourism Research 29: 899–918.[CrossRef] HOCHSCHILD, A. R. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling. Berkley. University of California Press. HOWARD, J., THWAITES, R. and SMITH, B. (2001). Investigating the Roles of the Indigenous Tour Guide. Journal of Tourism Studies 12(2): 32–39. HOLLINSHEAD, K. (1996). Marketing and Metaphysical Realism: The Disidentification of Aboriginal Life and Traditions Through Tourism. In Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (eds) Tourism and Indigenous Peoples. London. International Thomson Business Press: 308–348. JARMAN, N. (2004). Migrant Workers in Northern Ireland. Labour Market Bulletin 18: 51–59. KIRBY, P., GIBBONS, L. and CRONIN, M. (eds) (2002). Reinventing Ireland: Culture, Society and the Global Economy. London. Pluto Press. LAZARIDIS, G. and WICKENS, E. (1999). “Us” and the “Others”: Ethnic Minorities in Greece. Annals of Tourism Research 26: 632–655.[CrossRef] LEE, J. J. (1999). A Sense of Place in the Celtic Tiger? In Bohan, H. and Kennedy, G. (eds) Are We Forgetting Something? Our Society in the New Millennium. Dublin. Veritas: 71–93. MACCANNELL, D. (1973). Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Settings. American Journal of Sociology 79: 589–603.[CrossRef] MACCANNELL, D. (1976) The Tourist. New York. Schocken Books. MCLAUGHLIN, D. (2005) Immigration helps Economy's Performance. The Irish Times: Business this Week. June 17: 5. MCMANUS, R. (2003). Urban Dreams—Urban Nightmares. In Hourihane, J. (ed) Engaging Spaces: People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective. Dublin. The Lilliput Press: 30–44. MCMANUS, R. (2005). Identity crisis? Heritage Construction, Tourism and Place Marketing in Ireland. In McCarthy, M. (ed) Ireland's Heritages: Critical Perspectives on Memory and Identity. Aldershot. Ashgate: 235–250. MCWILLIAMS, D. (2005). The Pope's Children: Ireland's New Elite. Dublin. Gill and Macmillan. MELIA, D. and KENNEDY, E. (2005). Cultural Diversity. A Management Perspective. Dublin. Tourism Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology. MONK, J. and ALEXANDER, C. (1986). Free Port Fallout: Gender, Employment and Migration on Margarita Island. Annals of Tourism Research 13: 393–413.[CrossRef] NICKSON, D., WARHURST, C. and WITZ, A. (2003). The Labour of Aesthetics and the Aesthetics of Organization. Organization 10: 33–54.[CrossRef] O'CONNOR, B. (1993). Myths and Mirrors: Tourist Images and National Identity. In O'Connor, B. and Cronin, M. (eds) Tourism in Ireland: A Critical Analysis. Cork. Cork University Press. O'LEARY, S. and DEEGAN, J. (2003). People, Pace, Place: Qualitative and Quantitative Images of Ireland as a Tourism Destination in France. Journal of Vacation Marketing 9: 213–225.[CrossRef] PECHENART, J. (2003). Tongue-tied: Language, Culture and Changing Trends in Irish Tourism Employment. In Cronin, M. and O'Connor, B. (eds) Irish Tourism Image Culture and Identity. Clevedon. Channel View Publications: 241–26Z PHILIPS, D. and THOMAS, C. (eds) (2001). Effeithiau Twristiaeth ar yr Iaith Gymraeg yng Ngogledd-Orllewin Cymru/The Effects of Tourism on the Welsh Language in North-West Wales. Aberystwyth. Canolfan Uwchefrydiau Cymreig a Cheltaidd Prifysgol Cymru. PRENTICE, R. and ANDERSEN, V. (2000). Evoking Ireland: Modelling Tourist Propensity. Annals of Tourism Research 27: 490–516.[CrossRef] PRITCHARD, A. and MORGAN, N. (1996). Selling the Celtic Arc to the USA: A Comparative Analysis of the Destination Brochure Images Used in the Marketing of Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Journal of Vacation Marketing 2: 346–365.[CrossRef] QUINN, B. (1991). The Promotion of Ireland as a Tourist Destination in Continental Europe. Paper presented at the fifth workshop on social science research on ‘The Irish in the “new” Europe: Context, trends and issues’. Ireland. Institute of Irish Studies, University of Liverpool. RAINS, S. (2003). Home from Home: Diasporic Images of Ireland in Film and Tourism. In Cronin, M. and O'Connor, B. (eds) Irish Tourism Image Culture and Identity. Clevedon. Channel View Publications: 196–214. REISINGER, Y. and STEINER, C. (2006). Reconceptualizing Object Authenticity. Annals of Tourism Research 33: 65–86.[CrossRef] ROSELLO, M. (2001). Postcolonial Hospitality. The Immigrant as Guest. Stanford. Stanford University Press. SAAVEDRA, J. (2005). Culture Club. Hotel and Catering Review, September, 7, 2005. SALAMONE, F. A. (1997). Authenticity in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 24(2): 305–321.[CrossRef] SCARLES, C. (2004). Mediating Landscapes: The Processes and Practices of Image Construction in Tourist Brochures in Scotland. Tourist Studies 4(1): 43–67.[CrossRef] SHURMER-SMITH, P. and HANNAM, K. (1994). Worlds of Desire, Realms of Power: A Cultural Geography. London. Arnold. TOURISM IRELAND (2006a). The Ireland Marketing Toolkit Your Guide to Marketing Overseas in 2006. Dublin/Coleraine. Tourism Ireland. TOURISM IRELAND (2006b) Advertisments. Dublin/The Courtyard Studio. Tourism Ireland. URRY, J. (1999). Sociology Byond Societies: Mobilities for the 21st Century. London. Routledge. WANG, N. (1999). Rethinking Authenticity in Tourism Experience. Annals of Tourism Research 26: 349–370.[CrossRef] WARHURST, C., NICKSON, D., WITZ, A. and CULLEN, A. M. (2000). Aesthetic Labour in Interactive Service Work: Some Case Study Evidence from the ‘New Glasgow’. Service Industries Journal 20(3): 1–18.[Taylor & Francis Online] WATSON, L. G. and KOPACHEVSKY, J. (1994). Interpretations of Tourism as Commodity. Annals of Tourism Research 21: 643–660.[CrossRef] Websites Visited http://www.tourismireland.com/corporate/publications/files/TI_Understanding_OurBrand.pdf—Accessed on 13 April 2006. http://www.tourismirelandimagery.com/default.asp—Accessed on 13 April 2006. Cited by Amy E. Potter. (2016) “She goes into character as the lady of the house”: tour guides, performance, and the Southern plantation. Journal of Heritage Tourism 11:3, 250-261. Online publication date: 12-Nov-2015. Abdelkader Ababneh. (2016) Tourist Guides and Job Related Problems, Analysis and Evidence from Jordan. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism 0:0, 1-18. Online publication date: 13-Jun-2016. Dawn Burton, Mary Klemm. (2011) Whiteness, ethnic minorities and advertising in travel brochures. The Service Industries Journal 31:5, 679-693. Online publication date: 15-Oct-2010. Haiyan Kong, Catherine Cheung, Tom Baum. (2009) Are Tour Guides in China Ready for the Booming Tourism Industry?. Journal of China Tourism Research 5:1, 65-76. Online publication date: 13-Oct-2010.

PY - 2007/3/29

Y1 - 2007/3/29

N2 - This paper addresses the contribution of tourism's workforce to destination image and branding and considers the role that employees play in visitors' interpretation of their experience of place. The focus of this paper is on the contribution of working people to the image of place and the potential for contradiction in imagery as the people who inhabit and work within a place change over time. At the same time, those consuming the place as visitors may well have expectations that are fixed in traditional and outdated imagery. The location of this paper is Ireland where the traditional marketing of the tourism brand has given core roles to images of people and the friendliness of Irish hospitality, represented by traditional and homogeneous images. Interpretation of Ireland as a destination, in the tourist literature, by tour guides and within the cultural heritage sector generally, has widely perpetuated these traditional and, arguably, clichéd images. Recent growth in the "Celtic tiger" economy has induced unprecedented and large scale migration from countries across the globe to Ireland, particularly into the tourism sector. This paper raises questions with regard to interpretation and branding of a country as a tourist destination in the light of major changes within the demography and ethnicity of its tourism workforce.

AB - This paper addresses the contribution of tourism's workforce to destination image and branding and considers the role that employees play in visitors' interpretation of their experience of place. The focus of this paper is on the contribution of working people to the image of place and the potential for contradiction in imagery as the people who inhabit and work within a place change over time. At the same time, those consuming the place as visitors may well have expectations that are fixed in traditional and outdated imagery. The location of this paper is Ireland where the traditional marketing of the tourism brand has given core roles to images of people and the friendliness of Irish hospitality, represented by traditional and homogeneous images. Interpretation of Ireland as a destination, in the tourist literature, by tour guides and within the cultural heritage sector generally, has widely perpetuated these traditional and, arguably, clichéd images. Recent growth in the "Celtic tiger" economy has induced unprecedented and large scale migration from countries across the globe to Ireland, particularly into the tourism sector. This paper raises questions with regard to interpretation and branding of a country as a tourist destination in the light of major changes within the demography and ethnicity of its tourism workforce.

KW - tourism

KW - migrant labour

KW - Ireland

KW - brand marketing

KW - interpretation

KW - authenticity

KW - hospitality industry

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DO - 10.1080/02508281.2007.11081538

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