Place branding and the representation of people at work: Exploring issues of tourism imagery and migrant labour in the Republic of Ireland

Tom Baum, Niamh Hearns, Frances Devine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper addresses destination brand image in tourism marketing and assesses the contribution of tourism ' s workforce to such image and branding, considering the role that employees play in visitors ' interpretation of their experience of destination and place. The focus of this paper, therefore, is on the role of people in the image of place and the potential for contradiction in imagery as the people who inhabit and work within a place change over time. At the same time, both those who promote a destination and those consuming the place as visitors may well have expectations that are fixed in imagery that does not accord with that held within the wider community. The location of this paper is Ireland where the traditional promotion of the tourism brand has given a core role to images of people and the friendliness of the hospitality of Irish people, represented by largely homogeneous images. Recent growth in the ' Celtic tiger ' economy has induced unprecedented and large-scale migration from countries across the globe to Ireland, particularly into the tourism sector. This paper raises questions with regard to the branding of Ireland as a tourist destination in the light of major changes within the demography and ethnicity of its tourism workforce.
LanguageEnglish
Pages45-60
JournalPlace Branding and Public Diplomacy
Volume40
Issue number1
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 10 Apr 2008

Fingerprint

Migrant labor
Imagery
Tourism
Place branding
Republic of Ireland
Destination
Ireland
Branding
Workforce
Globe
Tourist destination
Ethnic groups
Demography
Brand image
Tourism marketing
Hospitality
Employees
Tourism sector

Keywords

  • Tourism
  • migrant labour
  • Ireland
  • brand marketing
  • interpretation
  • authenticity

Cite this

@article{d29fb979d915402ebe09f8070ba0e815,
title = "Place branding and the representation of people at work: Exploring issues of tourism imagery and migrant labour in the Republic of Ireland",
abstract = "This paper addresses destination brand image in tourism marketing and assesses the contribution of tourism ' s workforce to such image and branding, considering the role that employees play in visitors ' interpretation of their experience of destination and place. The focus of this paper, therefore, is on the role of people in the image of place and the potential for contradiction in imagery as the people who inhabit and work within a place change over time. At the same time, both those who promote a destination and those consuming the place as visitors may well have expectations that are fixed in imagery that does not accord with that held within the wider community. The location of this paper is Ireland where the traditional promotion of the tourism brand has given a core role to images of people and the friendliness of the hospitality of Irish people, represented by largely homogeneous images. Recent growth in the ' Celtic tiger ' economy has induced unprecedented and large-scale migration from countries across the globe to Ireland, particularly into the tourism sector. This paper raises questions with regard to the branding of Ireland as a tourist destination in the light of major changes within the demography and ethnicity of its tourism workforce.",
keywords = "Tourism, migrant labour, Ireland, brand marketing, interpretation, authenticity",
author = "Tom Baum and Niamh Hearns and Frances Devine",
note = "Reference text: OF Baum, Hearns and Devine 14 Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol. x, y, aa–bb {\circledC} 2007 Palgrave Macmillan Ltd 1751-8040 $30.00 perhaps unparalleled at a national level, encompassing non-national migration to both urban and rural locations. Furthermore, the Irish experience of such mobility is one of intensity over a very short period of time, with no signs of imminent abatement. Such changes within the labour force, especially in work that directly confronts the visitor in the ‘ boundary spanning ’roles ( Bateson and Hoffman, 1999 ) that represent the tourism sector at point of delivery provide challenges to both the desirability and practicability of maintaining the myth of traditional Irish service as represented in brand marketing. Further questions can be raised regarding the impact of tourism-related migration on aspects of the culture of host communities. Phillips and Thomas (2001) , in the context of Wales, raise a range of questions regarding the impact of in-bound tourism on the status and use of the Welsh language. The widespread in-migration of employees to rural areas, in Ireland, may well raise similar concerns in terms of both language and wider cultural attributes and, as a consequence, act to dilute the very features of Irish life that are core to the marketing of the destination. Tourism branding and marketing in Ireland has either not woken up to the evident cultural and economic change within society and, in particular, tourism ’ s workforce or it has chosen to ignore this reality in the perceived interests of providing its main markets with images that they expect from the country. A strategy, based on the latter, may refl ect Azarya’s (2004) argument that tourism destinations, seeking to promote the ‘ primitive ’(and traditional images of Ireland may be said to fall into this classifi cation) need to promote their own marginality. If they are not marginal to and different from the everyday, globalised experience of their visitors, they cannot attract the attention of potential tourists. As a result, ‘ every effort is made … . to keep display as genuine as possible, though still under tight control. … . All [agencies] join forces in maintaining this marginality, turn it into a saleable commodity and maximise its commercial value for all involved ’( Azarya, 2004: 964 ). Whichever explanation rings more true, they run the real risk of fuelling visitor dissatisfaction when expectations engendered by marketing do not match the reality of their interpretation in the heritage sites, hotels, pubs, restaurants and airline check-in desks that visitors use while in the country. Authenticity of tourism representation, in this context, may need to refl ect a contemporary reality rather than a staged idyll, refl ective of a lost past. Clearly, reconciling such representation in image terms is a real challenge to tourism in Ireland in branding, marketing and, indeed, in training and development terms. A failure to address this challenge may have serious long-term consequences for Irish tourism at a destination and individual business level as visitors recognise the disparity between what the brand promises and what reality actually delivers. References Anon . ( 2005 ) ‘ Flood of migrant workers turns out to be a trickle ’ , accessed at www.personneltoday.com on 18/03/05 . Azarya , V .( 2004 ) ‘ Globalization and international tourism in developing countries: Marginality as a commercial commodity ’ , Current Sociology, Vol. 52 , No. 6 , pp. 949 – 967 . Bateson , J .and Hoffman , D .( 1999 ) ‘ Managing Services Marketing ’ , The Dryden Press, Fort Worth, TX . Baum , T .( 2002 ) ‘ Making or breaking the tourist experience: The role of human resource management ’ , in Ryan, C (ed.) ‘ The Tourist Experience ’ , International Thomson, London, UK , pp. 94 – 111 . Baum , T .( 2006 ) ‘ Human Resource Management for Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure. An International Perspective ’ , International Thomson, London, UK . Bird , B .( 1989 ) ‘ Langkawi —from Mahsuri to Mahathir: Tourism for Whom ? ’ , INSAN, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia . Brown , D .( 1996 ) ‘ Genuine fakes ’ , in Selwyn, T. (ed.) ‘ The Tourist Image. Myths and Myth Making in Tourism ’ , John Wiley, Chichester, UK , pp. 33 – 48 . Buckley , J .( 1999 ) ‘ What has got us here will not take us forward —the Case for Tourism Brand Ireland ’ , in Ghauri, P. (ed.) ‘ International Marketing (European Edition), McGraw Hill, London, UK . Cawley , M .( 2003 ) ‘ The rural idyll ’ , in Hourihane, J. (ed.) ‘ Engaging Spaces. People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective ’ , The Lilliput Press, Dublin, Ireland , pp. 61 – 74 . Cohen , E .( 1988 ) ‘ Authenticity and commoditization in tourism ’ , Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 15 , No. 3 , pp. 371 – 386 . Cohen , E .( 1995 ) ‘ Contemporary tourism —trends and challenges: Sustainable authenticity or contrived postmodernity ’ , in Butler, R. and Pearce, D. (eds) ‘ Change in Tourism. Peop Coulter , C .and Coleman , S . , (eds)( 2003 ) ‘ The end of Irish History? Critical Approaches to the Celtic Tiger ’ , Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK . Cronin , M .and O ’ Connor , B .( 2003 ) ‘ Introduction ’ , in Cronin, M. and O ’ Connor, B. (eds) ‘ Irish Tourism: Image, Culture and Identity ’ , Channel View, Clevedon, UK . Cukier , J .( 1998 ) ‘ Tourism employment and shifts in the determination of social status in Bali ’ , in Ringer, G. (ed.) ‘ Destinations. Cultural Landscapes of Tourism ’ , Routledge, London, UK , pp. 63 – 79 . Dann , G .( 1996 ) ‘ The people of tourist brochures ’ , in Selwyn, T. (ed.) ‘ The Tourist Image. Myths and Myth Making in Tourism ’ , John Wiley, Chichester, UK , pp. 61 – 81 . Deegan , J .( 2005 ) ‘ A long-term perspective on Irish Tourism policy ’ , Proceedings of Tourism and Hospitality Research in Ireland: Exploring the Issues Conference, June, University of Ulster, Portrush . Deegan , J .and Dineen , D .( 1997 ) ‘ Tourism Policy and Performance. The Irish Experience ’ , International Thomson, London, UK . Devine , F . , Baum , T . , Hearns , N .and Devine , A .( 2006, forthcoming ) ‘ Cultural diversity in hospitality work: The Northern Ireland experience ’ , International Journal of Human Resource Management . Eurobarometer( 2005 ) ‘ Urban Audit Perception Survey ’ , Eurobarometer, Brussels, Belgium , July . F {\'a} ilte Ireland( 2005a ) ‘ A Human Resource Development Strategy for Irish Tourism. Competing through People, 2005 – 2012 ’ , F {\'a} ilte Ireland, Dublin, Ireland . F {\'a} ilte Ireland( 2005b ) ‘ Cultural Diversity Strategy and Implementation Plan ’ , F {\'a} ilte Ireland, Dublin, Ireland . F {\'a} ilte Ireland( 2005c ) ‘ Tourism Facts 2004 ’ , F {\'a} ilte Ireland, Dublin, Ireland . F {\'a} s( 2005 ) ‘ National Skills Bulletin 2005 ’ , F {\'a} s, Dublin, Ireland . Foley , A .and Fahy , J .( 2004 ) ‘ Incongruity between expression and experience: The role of imagery in supporting the positioning of a tourism destination brand ’ , Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 11 , No. 3 , pp. 209 – 217 . Forf {\'a} s( 2006 ) ‘ Skills Needs in the Irish Economy: The Role of Migration ’ , Forf {\'a} s Expert Group on Future Skills Needs, Dublin, Ireland . Gibson , A .( 1994 ) ‘ Tourism brand Ireland. Positioning a country ’ , in Cunningham, A., Ward, J. and Kilbride, C. (eds) ‘ Studies in Marketing ’ , Marketing Institute of Ireland (MII), Dublin, Ireland , pp. 61 – 102 . Hochschild , A . R .( 1983 ) ‘ The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling ’ , University of California Press, Berkley, CA . Hollinshead , K .( 1996 ) ‘ Marketing and metaphysical realism: The disidentifi cation of aboriginal life and traditions through tourism ’ , in Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (eds) ‘ Tourism and Indigenous Peoples ’ , International Thomson Business Press, London, UK , pp. 308 – 348 . Hourihane , J .( 2003 ) ‘ Spaces in the mind ’ , in Hourihane, J. (ed.) ‘ Engaging Spaces. People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective ’ , The Lilliput Press, Dublin, Ireland , pp. 1 – 12 . Jarman , N .( 2004 ) ‘ Migrant workers in Northern Ireland ’ , Labour Market Bulletin, Vol. 18 , pp. 51 – 59 . Kirby , P . , Gibbons , L .and Cronin , M . , (eds)( 2002 ) ‘ Reinventing Ireland: Culture, Society and the Global Economy ’ , Pluto Press, London, UK . Q5 Kotler , P . , Haider , D .and Rein , I .( 1993 ) ‘ Marketing Places ’ , The Free Press, New York, NY . Kotler , P .and Gertner , D .( 2004 ) ‘ Country as brand, product and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective ’ , in Morgan, N.J., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R. (eds) ‘ Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition , 2nd edn, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK , pp. 40 – 56 . Lanfant , M . F .( 1995a ) ‘ Introduction ’ , in Lanfant, M.F., Allcock, J. and Bruner, E. (eds) ‘ International Tourism. Identity and Change ’ , Sage, London, UK , pp. 1 – 23 . Lanfant , M . F .( 1995b ) ‘ Tourism, internationalization and identity ’ , in Lanfant, M.F., Allcock, J. and Bruner, E. (eds) ‘ International Tourism. Identity and Change ’ , Sage, London, UK , pp. 24 – 43 . Lee , J . J .( 1999 ) ‘ A sense of place in the Celtic Tiger ’ , in Bohan, H. and Kennedy, G. (eds) ‘ Are We Forgetting Something? Our Society in the New Millennium ’ , Veritas, Dublin, Ireland . MacCannell , D .( 1973 ) ‘ Staged authenticity: Arrangements of social space in tourist settings ’ , American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 79 , pp. 589 – 603 . MacCannell , D .( 1976 ) ‘ The Tourist ’ , Schocken Books, New York, NY . McCarthy , M .( 2005 ) ‘ Historico-geographical explorations of Ireland’s heritages: Towards a critical understanding of the nature of memory and identity ’ , in McCarthy, M. (ed.) ‘ Ireland’s Heritages. Critical Perspectives on Memory and Identity ’ , Ashgate, Aldershot, UK , pp. 3 – 54 . McIntosh , A . J .and Prentice , R . C .( 1999 ) ‘ Affi rming authenticity: Consuming cultural heritage ’ , Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 26 , No. 3 , pp. 589 – 612 . McLaughlin , D .( 2005 ) ‘ Immigration helps economy’s performance ’ , The Irish Times, Business This Week, 17th June, 2005, p. 5 . McManus , R .( 2003 ) ‘ Urban dreams —urban nightmares ’ , in Hourihane, J. (ed.) ‘ Engaging Spaces. People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective ’ , The Lilliput Press, Dublin, Ireland , pp. 30 – 44 . McManus , R .( 2005 ) ‘ Identity crisis? Heritage construction, tourism and place marketing in Ireland ’ , in McCarthy, M. (ed.) ‘ Ireland’s Heritages. Critical Perspectives on Memory and Identity ’ , Ashgate, Aldershot, UK , pp. 235 – 250 . McWilliams , D .( 2005 ) ‘ The Pope’s Children. Ireland’s New Elite ’ , Gill and Macmillan, Dublin, Ireland . Melia , D .and Kennedy , E .( 2005 ) ‘ Cultural Diversity. A Management Perspective ’ , Tourism Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland . Nickson , D . , Warhurst , C .and Witz , A .( 2003 ) ‘ The labour of aesthetics and the aesthetics of organization ’ , Organization, Vol. 10 , No. 1 , pp. 33 – 54 . O ’ Connor , B .( 1993 ) ‘ Myths and mirrors: Tourist images and national identity ’ , in O ’ Connor, B. and Cronin, M. (eds) ‘ Tourism in Ireland: A Critical Analysis ’ , Cork University Press, Cork, Ireland . O ’ Leary , S .and Deegan , J .( 2003 ) ‘ People, pace, place: Qualitative and quantitative images of Ireland as a tourism destination in France ’ , Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 9 , No. 3 , pp. 213 – 225 . Olins , W .( 2004 ) ‘ Branding the nation: The historical context ’ , in Morgan, N.J., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R. (eds) ‘ Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition ,2nd edn, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK , pp. 17 – 25 . P {\'e} chenart , J .( 2003 ) ‘ Tongue-tied: Language, culture and changing trends in Irish Tourism employment ’ , in Cronin, M. and O ’ Connor, B. (eds) ‘ Irish Tourism Image Culture and Identity ’ , Channel View Publications, Clifton, NJ , pp. 241 – 262 . Phillips , D .and Thomas , C . , (eds)( 2001 ) ‘ Effeithiau Twristiaeth ar yr Iaith Gymraeg yng Ngogledd-Orllewin Cymru (The Effects of Tourism on the Welsh Language in North-West Wales) ’ , Canolfan Uwchefrydiau Cymreig a Cheltaidd Prifysgol Cymru, Aberystwyth, UK . Prentice , R .and Andersen , V .( 2000 ) ‘ Evoking Ireland? Modelling tourist propensity ’ , Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 27 , No. 2 , pp. 490 – 516 . 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Saavedra , J .( 2005 ) ‘ Culture club ’ , Hotel and Catering Review, September . Selwyn , T .( 1996 ) ‘ Introduction ’ , in Selwyn, T. (ed.) ‘ The Tourist Image. Myths and Myth Making in Tourism ’ , John Wiley, Chichester, UK , pp. 1 – 32 . Shurmer-Smith , P .and Hannam , K .( 1994 ) ‘ Worlds of Desire, Realms of Power: A Cultural Geography ’ , Arnold, London, UK . St Andrews Citizen( 2004 ) ‘ St Andrews Caddies ’ , Letter to the Editor, August 20 . Tourism Ireland( undated ) ‘ Understanding our brand ’ , Tourism Ireland, Dublin/Coleraine, Ireland , accessed at http://www. tourismireland.com/corporate/publications/files/TI_ Understanding_OurBrand.pdf . Tourism Ireland( 2006a ) ‘ The Ireland Marketing Toolkit. Your guide to marketing overseas in 2006 ’ , Tourism Ireland, Dublin/Coleraine, Ireland . Tourism Ireland( 2006b ) ‘ Advertisments ’ , Tourism Ireland/The Courtyard Studio, Dublin, Ireland . 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N1 - Reference text: OF Baum, Hearns and Devine 14 Place Branding and Public Diplomacy Vol. x, y, aa–bb © 2007 Palgrave Macmillan Ltd 1751-8040 $30.00 perhaps unparalleled at a national level, encompassing non-national migration to both urban and rural locations. Furthermore, the Irish experience of such mobility is one of intensity over a very short period of time, with no signs of imminent abatement. Such changes within the labour force, especially in work that directly confronts the visitor in the ‘ boundary spanning ’roles ( Bateson and Hoffman, 1999 ) that represent the tourism sector at point of delivery provide challenges to both the desirability and practicability of maintaining the myth of traditional Irish service as represented in brand marketing. Further questions can be raised regarding the impact of tourism-related migration on aspects of the culture of host communities. Phillips and Thomas (2001) , in the context of Wales, raise a range of questions regarding the impact of in-bound tourism on the status and use of the Welsh language. The widespread in-migration of employees to rural areas, in Ireland, may well raise similar concerns in terms of both language and wider cultural attributes and, as a consequence, act to dilute the very features of Irish life that are core to the marketing of the destination. Tourism branding and marketing in Ireland has either not woken up to the evident cultural and economic change within society and, in particular, tourism ’ s workforce or it has chosen to ignore this reality in the perceived interests of providing its main markets with images that they expect from the country. A strategy, based on the latter, may refl ect Azarya’s (2004) argument that tourism destinations, seeking to promote the ‘ primitive ’(and traditional images of Ireland may be said to fall into this classifi cation) need to promote their own marginality. If they are not marginal to and different from the everyday, globalised experience of their visitors, they cannot attract the attention of potential tourists. As a result, ‘ every effort is made … . to keep display as genuine as possible, though still under tight control. … . All [agencies] join forces in maintaining this marginality, turn it into a saleable commodity and maximise its commercial value for all involved ’( Azarya, 2004: 964 ). Whichever explanation rings more true, they run the real risk of fuelling visitor dissatisfaction when expectations engendered by marketing do not match the reality of their interpretation in the heritage sites, hotels, pubs, restaurants and airline check-in desks that visitors use while in the country. Authenticity of tourism representation, in this context, may need to refl ect a contemporary reality rather than a staged idyll, refl ective of a lost past. Clearly, reconciling such representation in image terms is a real challenge to tourism in Ireland in branding, marketing and, indeed, in training and development terms. A failure to address this challenge may have serious long-term consequences for Irish tourism at a destination and individual business level as visitors recognise the disparity between what the brand promises and what reality actually delivers. References Anon . ( 2005 ) ‘ Flood of migrant workers turns out to be a trickle ’ , accessed at www.personneltoday.com on 18/03/05 . Azarya , V .( 2004 ) ‘ Globalization and international tourism in developing countries: Marginality as a commercial commodity ’ , Current Sociology, Vol. 52 , No. 6 , pp. 949 – 967 . Bateson , J .and Hoffman , D .( 1999 ) ‘ Managing Services Marketing ’ , The Dryden Press, Fort Worth, TX . Baum , T .( 2002 ) ‘ Making or breaking the tourist experience: The role of human resource management ’ , in Ryan, C (ed.) ‘ The Tourist Experience ’ , International Thomson, London, UK , pp. 94 – 111 . Baum , T .( 2006 ) ‘ Human Resource Management for Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure. An International Perspective ’ , International Thomson, London, UK . Bird , B .( 1989 ) ‘ Langkawi —from Mahsuri to Mahathir: Tourism for Whom ? ’ , INSAN, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia . Brown , D .( 1996 ) ‘ Genuine fakes ’ , in Selwyn, T. (ed.) ‘ The Tourist Image. Myths and Myth Making in Tourism ’ , John Wiley, Chichester, UK , pp. 33 – 48 . Buckley , J .( 1999 ) ‘ What has got us here will not take us forward —the Case for Tourism Brand Ireland ’ , in Ghauri, P. (ed.) ‘ International Marketing (European Edition), McGraw Hill, London, UK . Cawley , M .( 2003 ) ‘ The rural idyll ’ , in Hourihane, J. (ed.) ‘ Engaging Spaces. People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective ’ , The Lilliput Press, Dublin, Ireland , pp. 61 – 74 . Cohen , E .( 1988 ) ‘ Authenticity and commoditization in tourism ’ , Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 15 , No. 3 , pp. 371 – 386 . Cohen , E .( 1995 ) ‘ Contemporary tourism —trends and challenges: Sustainable authenticity or contrived postmodernity ’ , in Butler, R. and Pearce, D. (eds) ‘ Change in Tourism. Peop Coulter , C .and Coleman , S . , (eds)( 2003 ) ‘ The end of Irish History? Critical Approaches to the Celtic Tiger ’ , Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK . Cronin , M .and O ’ Connor , B .( 2003 ) ‘ Introduction ’ , in Cronin, M. and O ’ Connor, B. (eds) ‘ Irish Tourism: Image, Culture and Identity ’ , Channel View, Clevedon, UK . Cukier , J .( 1998 ) ‘ Tourism employment and shifts in the determination of social status in Bali ’ , in Ringer, G. (ed.) ‘ Destinations. Cultural Landscapes of Tourism ’ , Routledge, London, UK , pp. 63 – 79 . Dann , G .( 1996 ) ‘ The people of tourist brochures ’ , in Selwyn, T. (ed.) ‘ The Tourist Image. Myths and Myth Making in Tourism ’ , John Wiley, Chichester, UK , pp. 61 – 81 . Deegan , J .( 2005 ) ‘ A long-term perspective on Irish Tourism policy ’ , Proceedings of Tourism and Hospitality Research in Ireland: Exploring the Issues Conference, June, University of Ulster, Portrush . Deegan , J .and Dineen , D .( 1997 ) ‘ Tourism Policy and Performance. The Irish Experience ’ , International Thomson, London, UK . Devine , F . , Baum , T . , Hearns , N .and Devine , A .( 2006, forthcoming ) ‘ Cultural diversity in hospitality work: The Northern Ireland experience ’ , International Journal of Human Resource Management . Eurobarometer( 2005 ) ‘ Urban Audit Perception Survey ’ , Eurobarometer, Brussels, Belgium , July . F á ilte Ireland( 2005a ) ‘ A Human Resource Development Strategy for Irish Tourism. Competing through People, 2005 – 2012 ’ , F á ilte Ireland, Dublin, Ireland . F á ilte Ireland( 2005b ) ‘ Cultural Diversity Strategy and Implementation Plan ’ , F á ilte Ireland, Dublin, Ireland . F á ilte Ireland( 2005c ) ‘ Tourism Facts 2004 ’ , F á ilte Ireland, Dublin, Ireland . F á s( 2005 ) ‘ National Skills Bulletin 2005 ’ , F á s, Dublin, Ireland . Foley , A .and Fahy , J .( 2004 ) ‘ Incongruity between expression and experience: The role of imagery in supporting the positioning of a tourism destination brand ’ , Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 11 , No. 3 , pp. 209 – 217 . Forf á s( 2006 ) ‘ Skills Needs in the Irish Economy: The Role of Migration ’ , Forf á s Expert Group on Future Skills Needs, Dublin, Ireland . Gibson , A .( 1994 ) ‘ Tourism brand Ireland. Positioning a country ’ , in Cunningham, A., Ward, J. and Kilbride, C. (eds) ‘ Studies in Marketing ’ , Marketing Institute of Ireland (MII), Dublin, Ireland , pp. 61 – 102 . Hochschild , A . R .( 1983 ) ‘ The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling ’ , University of California Press, Berkley, CA . Hollinshead , K .( 1996 ) ‘ Marketing and metaphysical realism: The disidentifi cation of aboriginal life and traditions through tourism ’ , in Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (eds) ‘ Tourism and Indigenous Peoples ’ , International Thomson Business Press, London, UK , pp. 308 – 348 . Hourihane , J .( 2003 ) ‘ Spaces in the mind ’ , in Hourihane, J. (ed.) ‘ Engaging Spaces. People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective ’ , The Lilliput Press, Dublin, Ireland , pp. 1 – 12 . Jarman , N .( 2004 ) ‘ Migrant workers in Northern Ireland ’ , Labour Market Bulletin, Vol. 18 , pp. 51 – 59 . Kirby , P . , Gibbons , L .and Cronin , M . , (eds)( 2002 ) ‘ Reinventing Ireland: Culture, Society and the Global Economy ’ , Pluto Press, London, UK . Q5 Kotler , P . , Haider , D .and Rein , I .( 1993 ) ‘ Marketing Places ’ , The Free Press, New York, NY . Kotler , P .and Gertner , D .( 2004 ) ‘ Country as brand, product and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective ’ , in Morgan, N.J., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R. (eds) ‘ Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition , 2nd edn, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK , pp. 40 – 56 . Lanfant , M . F .( 1995a ) ‘ Introduction ’ , in Lanfant, M.F., Allcock, J. and Bruner, E. (eds) ‘ International Tourism. Identity and Change ’ , Sage, London, UK , pp. 1 – 23 . Lanfant , M . F .( 1995b ) ‘ Tourism, internationalization and identity ’ , in Lanfant, M.F., Allcock, J. and Bruner, E. (eds) ‘ International Tourism. Identity and Change ’ , Sage, London, UK , pp. 24 – 43 . Lee , J . J .( 1999 ) ‘ A sense of place in the Celtic Tiger ’ , in Bohan, H. and Kennedy, G. (eds) ‘ Are We Forgetting Something? Our Society in the New Millennium ’ , Veritas, Dublin, Ireland . MacCannell , D .( 1973 ) ‘ Staged authenticity: Arrangements of social space in tourist settings ’ , American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 79 , pp. 589 – 603 . MacCannell , D .( 1976 ) ‘ The Tourist ’ , Schocken Books, New York, NY . McCarthy , M .( 2005 ) ‘ Historico-geographical explorations of Ireland’s heritages: Towards a critical understanding of the nature of memory and identity ’ , in McCarthy, M. (ed.) ‘ Ireland’s Heritages. Critical Perspectives on Memory and Identity ’ , Ashgate, Aldershot, UK , pp. 3 – 54 . McIntosh , A . J .and Prentice , R . C .( 1999 ) ‘ Affi rming authenticity: Consuming cultural heritage ’ , Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 26 , No. 3 , pp. 589 – 612 . McLaughlin , D .( 2005 ) ‘ Immigration helps economy’s performance ’ , The Irish Times, Business This Week, 17th June, 2005, p. 5 . McManus , R .( 2003 ) ‘ Urban dreams —urban nightmares ’ , in Hourihane, J. (ed.) ‘ Engaging Spaces. People, Place and Space from an Irish Perspective ’ , The Lilliput Press, Dublin, Ireland , pp. 30 – 44 . McManus , R .( 2005 ) ‘ Identity crisis? Heritage construction, tourism and place marketing in Ireland ’ , in McCarthy, M. (ed.) ‘ Ireland’s Heritages. Critical Perspectives on Memory and Identity ’ , Ashgate, Aldershot, UK , pp. 235 – 250 . McWilliams , D .( 2005 ) ‘ The Pope’s Children. Ireland’s New Elite ’ , Gill and Macmillan, Dublin, Ireland . Melia , D .and Kennedy , E .( 2005 ) ‘ Cultural Diversity. A Management Perspective ’ , Tourism Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland . Nickson , D . , Warhurst , C .and Witz , A .( 2003 ) ‘ The labour of aesthetics and the aesthetics of organization ’ , Organization, Vol. 10 , No. 1 , pp. 33 – 54 . O ’ Connor , B .( 1993 ) ‘ Myths and mirrors: Tourist images and national identity ’ , in O ’ Connor, B. and Cronin, M. (eds) ‘ Tourism in Ireland: A Critical Analysis ’ , Cork University Press, Cork, Ireland . O ’ Leary , S .and Deegan , J .( 2003 ) ‘ People, pace, place: Qualitative and quantitative images of Ireland as a tourism destination in France ’ , Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 9 , No. 3 , pp. 213 – 225 . Olins , W .( 2004 ) ‘ Branding the nation: The historical context ’ , in Morgan, N.J., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R. (eds) ‘ Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition ,2nd edn, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK , pp. 17 – 25 . P é chenart , J .( 2003 ) ‘ Tongue-tied: Language, culture and changing trends in Irish Tourism employment ’ , in Cronin, M. and O ’ Connor, B. 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PY - 2008/4/10

Y1 - 2008/4/10

N2 - This paper addresses destination brand image in tourism marketing and assesses the contribution of tourism ' s workforce to such image and branding, considering the role that employees play in visitors ' interpretation of their experience of destination and place. The focus of this paper, therefore, is on the role of people in the image of place and the potential for contradiction in imagery as the people who inhabit and work within a place change over time. At the same time, both those who promote a destination and those consuming the place as visitors may well have expectations that are fixed in imagery that does not accord with that held within the wider community. The location of this paper is Ireland where the traditional promotion of the tourism brand has given a core role to images of people and the friendliness of the hospitality of Irish people, represented by largely homogeneous images. Recent growth in the ' Celtic tiger ' economy has induced unprecedented and large-scale migration from countries across the globe to Ireland, particularly into the tourism sector. This paper raises questions with regard to the branding of Ireland as a tourist destination in the light of major changes within the demography and ethnicity of its tourism workforce.

AB - This paper addresses destination brand image in tourism marketing and assesses the contribution of tourism ' s workforce to such image and branding, considering the role that employees play in visitors ' interpretation of their experience of destination and place. The focus of this paper, therefore, is on the role of people in the image of place and the potential for contradiction in imagery as the people who inhabit and work within a place change over time. At the same time, both those who promote a destination and those consuming the place as visitors may well have expectations that are fixed in imagery that does not accord with that held within the wider community. The location of this paper is Ireland where the traditional promotion of the tourism brand has given a core role to images of people and the friendliness of the hospitality of Irish people, represented by largely homogeneous images. Recent growth in the ' Celtic tiger ' economy has induced unprecedented and large-scale migration from countries across the globe to Ireland, particularly into the tourism sector. This paper raises questions with regard to the branding of Ireland as a tourist destination in the light of major changes within the demography and ethnicity of its tourism workforce.

KW - Tourism

KW - migrant labour

KW - Ireland

KW - brand marketing

KW - interpretation

KW - authenticity

M3 - Article

VL - 40

SP - 45

EP - 60

JO - Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

T2 - Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

JF - Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

SN - 1751-8040

IS - 1

ER -