Spray-dried whey protein isolate (WPI) powders were prepared at pilot-scale from solutions without heat (WPIUH), heated (WPIH) or heated with calcium (WPIHCa), which were analysed and compared with a control sample (WPIC). WPIC, WPIUH, WPIH and WPIHCa solutions had whey protein denaturation levels of 0.0, 3.2, 64.4 and 74.4%, respectively. Computerised tomography scanning showed that 52.6, 84.0, 74.5 and 41.9% of WPIC, WPIUH, WPIH and WPIHCa powder particles had diameters of ≤30 µm. WPIHCa and WPIH powders were cohesive, while WPIC and WPIUH powders were easy flowing. Marked differences in microstructure were observed between WPIH and WPIHCa. There were no measured differences in wall friction, bulk density or colour.
- Whey protein
- Physical properties