A physical model to simulate thermal behaviour of an onboard storage tank and parameters of hydrogen inside the tank during fuelling is described. The energy conservation equation, Abel-Noble real gas equation of state, and the entrainment theory are applied to calculate the dynamics of hydrogen temperature inside the tank and distribution of temperature through the wall to satisfy requirements of the regulation. Convective heat transfer between hydrogen, tank wall and the atmosphere are modelled using Nusselt number correlations. An original methodology, based on the entrainment theory, is developed to calculate changing velocity of the gas inside the tank during the fuelling. Conductive heat transfer through the tank wall, composed of a load-bearing carbon fibre reinforced polymer and a liner, is modelled by employing one-dimensional unsteady heat transfer equation. The model is validated against experiments on fuelling of Type III and Type IV tanks for hydrogen onboard storage. Hydrogen temperature dynamics inside a tank is simulated by the model within the experimental non-uniformity of 5 °C. The calculation procedure is time efficient and can be used for the development of automated hydrogen fuelling protocols and systems.
- Fuelling protocol
- Onboard storage