Phase change materials in building integrated space heating and domestic hot water applications: A review

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Thermal energy storage (TES) using phase change materials (PCM) has been widely investigated for various
applications from very low to very high temperatures due to its flexible operating temperature range, high energy
storage density, and long-life cycle at a reasonable cost. The use of PCM in building components and hot water
production can reduce the building energy demand, indoor temperature fluctuation, and better demand-side
management by utilising available renewable energy and off-peak electricity. This paper presents a state-ofthe-
art review of the application of PCM domestic thermal heating. The classifications of TES systems, advantages
of PCM over other TES systems, and the methods to overcome shortcomings of PCM are discussed in brief.
Then the various novel techniques employed in underfloor heating, wall heating, PCM integration in domestic
hot water tanks, and developing latent heat thermal energy storage units are extensively reviewed and the major
findings of the research works reviewed are tabulated. Based on the extensive review conducted, the important
factors to be considered for selecting a suitable PCM for these applications are summarised, and the commercially
available PCM for the above applications are listed with their major thermo-physical properties and supplier
details in the appendix.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105227
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
Early online date8 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study is a part of the SPIRE-2 project and the authors acknowledge the financial support from the European Union 's INTERREG VA Programme (Grant Number IVA5038 ). The authors are grateful to all the partner institutes and industries of the project. This work is part of the authors's contribution to the work of, a European network studying thermal energy storage.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors


  • Latent heat thermal energy storage
  • Phase change materials
  • Domestic heating
  • Underfloor heating
  • Wall heating
  • Hot water production


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