1. The effects of anti-arrhythmic drugs on the power spectrum of established ventricular fibrillation induced by endocardial electrical stimulation, have been studied in greyhounds anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone (35 mg kg-1, i.v.). 2. In dogs receiving no drug, initial recording of ventricular fibrillation showed a dominant frequency of 9.9 +/- 0.7 Hz (lead II) and 10.0 +/- 0.6 Hz (endocardium). After 3.3 min the frequency had fallen to 4.0 +/- 0.4 Hz in lead II, but remained high in the endocardium (10.7 +/- 0.5 Hz). 3. Lignocaine significantly reduced the dominant frequency for fibrillation recorded from lead II at (0-80 s), and for endocardial fibrillation at (0-200 s). 4. Pretreatment with propranolol or bretylium had little effect on the time course of the dominant frequency of fibrillation in lead II or the endocardium. 5. Verapamil prevented the fall in frequency seen in lead II after 80 s in the no drug group. A significantly higher frequency was maintained in both lead II (14.7 +/- 0.9 Hz) and the endocardium (14.8 +/- 0.9 Hz) for 3.3 min, compared with the no drug group (P less than 0.01). 6. Activation of fast sodium channels may determine the rapid frequency of the initial stages of ventricular fibrillation. The rapid fall in dominant frequency in lead II after fibrillation for 80 s can be prevented by calcium channel blockade and may be due to intracellular accumulation of calcium.