This paper reports the results of a major research initiative into the identification of key communication skills in community pharmacist–patient consultations. It is now widely accepted that the quality of practitioner–patient communication is fundamental to effective health care. However, an analysis of the literature pertaining to the communication issues facing health professionals in general and pharmacists in particular emphasised the need for more empirical research, to chart what pharmacists themselves deemed to be the nature and range of skills which contribute to effective communication performance in community pharmacy practice. The main aim of this research investigation was, therefore, to identify what constituted effective communicative performance by community pharmacists. This paper provides full details of the repertoire of skills and sub-skills identified as being the core communicative elements of practice. The results of this research will have relevance for health professionals and behavioural scientists, and will also contribute to the assurance of quality within the field of community pharmacy practice.
|Journal||Patient Education and Counseling|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 2000|
Bibliographical noteReference text: 1. D. Dickson, Barriers to communication. In: A. Long Editor, Interaction for practice in community nursing MacMillan, Basingstoke (1998), pp. 84–132.
2. O. Hargie and N. Morrow, How to communicate effectively with patients. In: M. Harrington Editor, NPA 97 pharmacy business and practice Atalink, London (1997), pp. 216–218.
3. M. Argyle. The psychology of interpersonal behaviour Penguin, Harmondsworth (1967).
4. R. Proctor and A. Dutta. Skill acquisition and human performance Sage, Thousand Oaks (1995).
5. O. Hargie Editor, The handbook of communication skills Routledge, London (1997).
6. R. Millar, V. Crute and O. Hargie. Professional interviewing Routledge, London (1992).
7. Hughes K. An investigation into non-verbal behaviours associated with deception/concealment during a negotiation process. University of Ulster, Jordanstown: D. Phil. Thesis, 1994..
8. Irving P. A reconceptualisation of Rogerian core conditions of facilitative communication: implications for training. University of Ulster, Jordanstown: D. Phil. Thesis, 1995..
9. M. Lount and O. Hargie, The priest as counsellor: an investigation of critical incidents in the pastoral work of Catholic priests. Couns Psychol Q 10 (1997), pp. 247–259. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (5)
10. D. Dickson, O. Hargie and N. Morrow. Communication skills training for health professionals Chapman and Hall, London (1997).
11. R. Ellis and D. Whittington. A guide to social skill training Croom Helm, London (1981).
12. H. Meehan. Learning lessons: social organization in the classroom Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1979).
13. C. Saunders and R. Caves, An empirical approach to the identification of communication skills with reference to speech therapy. JFHE 10 (1986), pp. 29–44.
14. R. Caves, Consultative methods for extracting expert knowledge about professional competence. In: R. Ellis Editor, Professional competence and quality assurance in the caring professions Croom Helm, London (1988), pp. 199–229.
15. Morrow N, Hargie O. Effective communication. In: Taylor K, Harding G, editors. Pharmacy practice. Amsterdam: Harwood, in press..
16. O. Hargie, N. Morrow and C. Woodman, Consumer perceptions of and attitudes to community pharmacy services. Pharm J 249 (1992), pp. 688–691.
17. N. Morrow, O. Hargie and C. Woodman, Consumer perceptions of and attitudes to the advice-giving role of community pharmacists. Pharm J 251 (1993), pp. 25–27.
18. R.J. Cipolle, L.M. Strand and P.C. Morley. Pharmaceutical care practice McGraw-Hill, New York (1998).
19. Department of Health. A first class service: quality in the new NHS. London: Department of Health, 1998..
20. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain Working Party Report. From compliance to concordance. London: RPSGB, 1997..
21. M.P. Tully, K. Hassell and P.R. Noyce, Advice-giving in community pharmacies in the UK. J Health Serv Res Policy 2 (1997), pp. 38–50. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (45)
22. J.C. Schommer and J.B. Wiederholt, The association of prescription status, patient age, patient gender, and patient question asking behavior with the content of pharmacist–patient communication. Pharm Res 14 (1997), pp. 145–151. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (26)
23. M. Wilson, E.J. Robinson and A. Ellis, Studying communication between community pharmacists and their customers. Couns Psychol Q 2 (1989), pp. 367–380. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (5)
24. F. Smith, M.R. Salkind and B.C. Jolly, Community pharmacy: a method of assessing quality of care. Soc Sci Med 31 (1990), pp. 603–607. Abstract | PDF (542 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (25)
25. N. Morrow, O. Hargie, H. Donnelly and C. Woodman, ‘Why do you ask?’ A study of questioning behaviour in community pharmacist–client consultations. Int J Pharm Pract 2 (1993), pp. 90–94.
26. A. Ekedahl, Open-ended questions and show-and-tell — a way to improve pharmacist counselling and patients’ handling of their medicines. J Clin Pharm Ther 21 (1996), pp. 95–99. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (7)
27. C. Livingstone, Verbal interactions between elderly people and community pharmacists about prescription medicines. Int J Pharm Pract 4 (1996), pp. 12–18. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (13)
28. N. Morrow and O. Hargie, Communication skills and health promotion. Pharm J 253 (1994), pp. 311–313.
29. Pilnick A. Pharmacy counselling: a study of the pharmacist–patient encounter using conversational analysis. Nottingham University, England: Ph.D. Thesis, 1997..
30. H. Davis and L. Fallowfield. Counselling and communication in health care Wiley, Chichester (1991).