Performance of the green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum (Walker) on previously defoliated Sitka spruce

DT Williams, NA Straw, KR Day

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    17 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    1 The green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum, is an important defoliator of Sitka spruce in the U.K. However, it is usual for years in which high E. abietinum populations occur to be followed by a year with low aphid densities. The possibility that the performance of E. abietinum is reduced on previously infested Sitka spruce, and that this is the cause of year-to-year fluctuations in population density, was investigated by comparing population development and the growth rate of individual aphids on experimentally defoliated trees. 2 Separate experiments were performed to determine whether aphid performance was reduced either in the autumn immediately after defoliation in the spring, or was reduced in the spring of the next year. Different rates of initial defoliation on trees used to test aphid performance were created by artificially infesting the trees with aphids in the spring before the experiments, and varying the time of infestation. 3 Population development and the mean relative growth rate (MRGR) of individual aphids on previously defoliated and undefoliated Sitka spruce did not differ significantly in the spring of the next year. No differences were observed in the nutrient content of the 1-year-old needles of previously defoliated or undefoliated trees at this time. 4 In the autumn and winter immediately after spring defoliation, aphid MRGR was significantly higher on trees that had been heavily defoliated earlier in the season compared with trees that had been lightly defoliated. However, the difference in MRGR decreased over the winter period. Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentrations were 9.4-12.2% higher, at the beginning of the autumn, in the current year needles of heavily defoliated trees than in the current year needles of lightly defoliated trees. 5 The experiments indicate that high populations of E. abietinum in the spring do not induce any defensive mechanisms in Sitka spruce that adversely affect subsequent generations of the aphid. By contrast, the results suggest that high spring densities of the aphid improve the nutritional quality of the current year's foliage for autumn generations.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages95-105
    JournalAgricultural and Forest Entomology
    Volume7
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - May 2005

    Fingerprint

    Elatobium abietinum
    Picea sitchensis
    aphid
    Picea
    Aphidoidea
    defoliation
    autumn
    winter
    experiment
    foliage
    population density
    growth and development

    Cite this

    @article{244ecd1d0d7243a9ae2ded13d5343620,
    title = "Performance of the green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum (Walker) on previously defoliated Sitka spruce",
    abstract = "1 The green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum, is an important defoliator of Sitka spruce in the U.K. However, it is usual for years in which high E. abietinum populations occur to be followed by a year with low aphid densities. The possibility that the performance of E. abietinum is reduced on previously infested Sitka spruce, and that this is the cause of year-to-year fluctuations in population density, was investigated by comparing population development and the growth rate of individual aphids on experimentally defoliated trees. 2 Separate experiments were performed to determine whether aphid performance was reduced either in the autumn immediately after defoliation in the spring, or was reduced in the spring of the next year. Different rates of initial defoliation on trees used to test aphid performance were created by artificially infesting the trees with aphids in the spring before the experiments, and varying the time of infestation. 3 Population development and the mean relative growth rate (MRGR) of individual aphids on previously defoliated and undefoliated Sitka spruce did not differ significantly in the spring of the next year. No differences were observed in the nutrient content of the 1-year-old needles of previously defoliated or undefoliated trees at this time. 4 In the autumn and winter immediately after spring defoliation, aphid MRGR was significantly higher on trees that had been heavily defoliated earlier in the season compared with trees that had been lightly defoliated. However, the difference in MRGR decreased over the winter period. Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentrations were 9.4-12.2{\%} higher, at the beginning of the autumn, in the current year needles of heavily defoliated trees than in the current year needles of lightly defoliated trees. 5 The experiments indicate that high populations of E. abietinum in the spring do not induce any defensive mechanisms in Sitka spruce that adversely affect subsequent generations of the aphid. By contrast, the results suggest that high spring densities of the aphid improve the nutritional quality of the current year's foliage for autumn generations.",
    author = "DT Williams and NA Straw and KR Day",
    year = "2005",
    month = "5",
    language = "English",
    volume = "7",
    pages = "95--105",
    journal = "Agricultural and Forest Entomology",
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    Performance of the green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum (Walker) on previously defoliated Sitka spruce. / Williams, DT; Straw, NA; Day, KR.

    In: Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 05.2005, p. 95-105.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Performance of the green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum (Walker) on previously defoliated Sitka spruce

    AU - Williams, DT

    AU - Straw, NA

    AU - Day, KR

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    N2 - 1 The green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum, is an important defoliator of Sitka spruce in the U.K. However, it is usual for years in which high E. abietinum populations occur to be followed by a year with low aphid densities. The possibility that the performance of E. abietinum is reduced on previously infested Sitka spruce, and that this is the cause of year-to-year fluctuations in population density, was investigated by comparing population development and the growth rate of individual aphids on experimentally defoliated trees. 2 Separate experiments were performed to determine whether aphid performance was reduced either in the autumn immediately after defoliation in the spring, or was reduced in the spring of the next year. Different rates of initial defoliation on trees used to test aphid performance were created by artificially infesting the trees with aphids in the spring before the experiments, and varying the time of infestation. 3 Population development and the mean relative growth rate (MRGR) of individual aphids on previously defoliated and undefoliated Sitka spruce did not differ significantly in the spring of the next year. No differences were observed in the nutrient content of the 1-year-old needles of previously defoliated or undefoliated trees at this time. 4 In the autumn and winter immediately after spring defoliation, aphid MRGR was significantly higher on trees that had been heavily defoliated earlier in the season compared with trees that had been lightly defoliated. However, the difference in MRGR decreased over the winter period. Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentrations were 9.4-12.2% higher, at the beginning of the autumn, in the current year needles of heavily defoliated trees than in the current year needles of lightly defoliated trees. 5 The experiments indicate that high populations of E. abietinum in the spring do not induce any defensive mechanisms in Sitka spruce that adversely affect subsequent generations of the aphid. By contrast, the results suggest that high spring densities of the aphid improve the nutritional quality of the current year's foliage for autumn generations.

    AB - 1 The green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum, is an important defoliator of Sitka spruce in the U.K. However, it is usual for years in which high E. abietinum populations occur to be followed by a year with low aphid densities. The possibility that the performance of E. abietinum is reduced on previously infested Sitka spruce, and that this is the cause of year-to-year fluctuations in population density, was investigated by comparing population development and the growth rate of individual aphids on experimentally defoliated trees. 2 Separate experiments were performed to determine whether aphid performance was reduced either in the autumn immediately after defoliation in the spring, or was reduced in the spring of the next year. Different rates of initial defoliation on trees used to test aphid performance were created by artificially infesting the trees with aphids in the spring before the experiments, and varying the time of infestation. 3 Population development and the mean relative growth rate (MRGR) of individual aphids on previously defoliated and undefoliated Sitka spruce did not differ significantly in the spring of the next year. No differences were observed in the nutrient content of the 1-year-old needles of previously defoliated or undefoliated trees at this time. 4 In the autumn and winter immediately after spring defoliation, aphid MRGR was significantly higher on trees that had been heavily defoliated earlier in the season compared with trees that had been lightly defoliated. However, the difference in MRGR decreased over the winter period. Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentrations were 9.4-12.2% higher, at the beginning of the autumn, in the current year needles of heavily defoliated trees than in the current year needles of lightly defoliated trees. 5 The experiments indicate that high populations of E. abietinum in the spring do not induce any defensive mechanisms in Sitka spruce that adversely affect subsequent generations of the aphid. By contrast, the results suggest that high spring densities of the aphid improve the nutritional quality of the current year's foliage for autumn generations.

    M3 - Article

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    SN - 1461-9555

    IS - 2

    ER -