The performance of a composite hydrogen storage tank with TPRD in an engulfing fire is studied. The non-adiabatic tank blowdown model, including in fire conditions, using the under-expanded jet theory is described. The model input includes thermal parameters of hydrogen and tank materials, heat flux from a fire to the tank, TPRD diameter and TPRD initiation delay time. The unsteady heat transfer from surroundings through the tank wall and liner to hydrogen accounts for the degradation of the composite overwrap resin and melting of the liner. The model is validated against the blowdown experiment and the destructive fire test with a tank without TPRD. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured hydrogen pressure and temperature dynamics, blowdown time, and tank's fire-resistance rating, i.e. time to tank rupture in a fire without TPRD. The lower limit for TPRD orifice diameter sufficient to prevent the tank rupture in a fire and, at the same time, to reduce the flame length and mitigate the pressure peaking phenomenon in a garage to exclude its destruction, is assessed for different tanks, e.g. it is 0.75 mm for largest studied 244 L, 70 MPa tank. The phenomenon of Type IV tank liner melting for TPRD with lower diameter is revealed and its influence on hydrogen blowdown is assessed. This phenomenon facilitates the blowdown yet requires further detailed experimental validation.
- Hydrogen storage tank
- Fire-resistance rating
- Specific heat release rate
- TPRD diameter and activation time
- Liner melting phenomenon