The brain-computer interface (BCI) and the tracking of eye gaze provide modalities for human-machine communication and control. In this article, we provide the evaluation of a collaborative BCI and eye gaze approach, known as a hybrid BCI. The combined inputs interact with a virtual environment to provide actuation according to a four-way menu system. The following two approaches are evaluated: first, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) BCI with on-screen stimulation; second, hybrid BCI, which combined eye gaze and SSVEP for navigation and selection. A study comprises participants without known brain injury (non-BI, N = 30) and participants with known brain injury (BI, N = 14). A total of 29 out of 30 non-BI participants can successfully control the hybrid BCI, while nine out of the 14 BI participants are able to achieve control, as evidenced by task completion. The hybrid BCI provides a mean accuracy of 99.84% in the cohort of non-BI participants and 99.14% in the cohort of BI participants. Information transfer rates are 24.41 bpm in non-BI participants and 15.87 bpm in BI participants. The research goal is to quantify usage of SSVEP and ET approaches in cohorts of non-BI and BI participants. The hybrid is the preferred interaction modality for most participants for both cohorts. When compared to non-BI participants, it is encouraging that nine out of 14 participants with known BI can use the hBCI technology with equivalent accuracy and efficiency, albeit with slower transfer rates.
- Brain–computer interface (BCI)
- brain injury (BI)
- data fusion
- eye tracking
- virtual environment