Performance and operational effectiveness of evacuated flat plate solar collectors compared with conventional thermal, PVT and PV panels

Roger Moss, Paul Henshall, Farid Arya, Stan Shire, Trevor Hyde, Philip Eames

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The concept of an evacuated flat plate (EFP) collector was proposed over 40 years ago but, despite its professed advantages, very few manufacturers have developed commercial versions. This situation suggests both technical difficulties in manufacturing a competitively-priced sealed for life panel and a lack of awareness of the benefits of such panels. This paper demonstrates an evacuated flat plate simulation that closely models experimental efficiency measurements. Having established the validity of the model, it compares published data for a commercial EFP collector with predictions for an optimal design to investigate whether any further efficiency improvement might be possible. The optimised design is then evaluated against alternative solar energy devices by modelling a number of possible applications. These comparisons should inform choices about solar options for delivering heat: EFP collectors are well-suited to some of these applications.An evacuated flat plate solar thermal collector with a 0.5x0.5 m absorber was tested under a solar simulator. The test conditions spanned the range 200
LanguageEnglish
Pages1-30
JournalApplied Energy
VolumeUnknow
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

Solar collectors
efficiency measurement
Solar energy
simulator
manufacturing
Simulators
prediction
modeling
simulation
solar collector
Hot Temperature
comparison
test
solar energy
Optimal design

Keywords

  • Evacuated
  • flat plate
  • solar
  • collector
  • Organic Rankine cycle
  • weather

Cite this

Moss, Roger ; Henshall, Paul ; Arya, Farid ; Shire, Stan ; Hyde, Trevor ; Eames, Philip. / Performance and operational effectiveness of evacuated flat plate solar collectors compared with conventional thermal, PVT and PV panels. In: Applied Energy. 2018 ; Vol. Unknow. pp. 1-30.
@article{26d0fb2603e144bdb164f67914e449d9,
title = "Performance and operational effectiveness of evacuated flat plate solar collectors compared with conventional thermal, PVT and PV panels",
abstract = "The concept of an evacuated flat plate (EFP) collector was proposed over 40 years ago but, despite its professed advantages, very few manufacturers have developed commercial versions. This situation suggests both technical difficulties in manufacturing a competitively-priced sealed for life panel and a lack of awareness of the benefits of such panels. This paper demonstrates an evacuated flat plate simulation that closely models experimental efficiency measurements. Having established the validity of the model, it compares published data for a commercial EFP collector with predictions for an optimal design to investigate whether any further efficiency improvement might be possible. The optimised design is then evaluated against alternative solar energy devices by modelling a number of possible applications. These comparisons should inform choices about solar options for delivering heat: EFP collectors are well-suited to some of these applications.An evacuated flat plate solar thermal collector with a 0.5x0.5 m absorber was tested under a solar simulator. The test conditions spanned the range 200",
keywords = "Evacuated, flat plate, solar, collector, Organic Rankine cycle, weather",
author = "Roger Moss and Paul Henshall and Farid Arya and Stan Shire and Trevor Hyde and Philip Eames",
note = "Reference text: Abbate, P., Presentation on the TVP evacuated panel at InterSolar 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_4FD4Zxwew accessed 12/7/2017 Abdelhamid, M., Widyolar, B.K., Jiang, L., Winton, R., Yablonovitch, E., Scranton, G., Cygan, D., Abbasi, H. and Kozlov, A. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector. Applied Energy 182 (2016) 68-79 Agrawal, S. and Tiwari, G.N., Energy and exergy analysis of hybrid micro-channel photovoltaic thermal module. Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356-370. Alam, M., Singh, H., Suresh, S. and Redpath, D.A.G., Energy and economic analysis of Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) used in non-domestic buildings, Applied Energy 188 (2017) 1-8 Alobaid, M., Hughes, B., Calautit, J.K., O’Connor, D. and Heyes, A., A review of solar driven absorption cooling with photovoltaic thermal systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 76, September 2017, Pages 728–742 Amrizal, N., Chemisana, D. and Rosell, J.I., Hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors dynamic modelling. Applied Energy 101 (2013) 797-807. Ancona, M.A., Bianchi, M., Diolaiti, E., Giannuzzi, A., Marano, B., Melino, F. and Peretto, A, A novel solar concentrator system for combined heat and power application in residential sector. Applied Energy 185 (2017) 1199-1209 Beikircher, T., M{\"o}ckl, M., Osgyan, P. and Streib, G, Advanced solar flat plate collectors with full area absorber, front side film and rear side vacuum superinsulation, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 141 (2015) 308-406 Benvenuti, C. and Ruzinov, V., The SRB evacuated flat solar panel, Proceedings of ECOS 2010, pp2-429 to 434. Benvenuti, C., (2013a) The SRB solar thermal panel, Europhysics News March 2013, DOI: 10.1051/epn/2013301, p16-18 Benvenuti, C, (2013b) Particle accelerators and solar panels, Fisica E. Vol29, No1-2, 2013 pp31-38 (NEG Non-evaporable getters etc) Benz, N. and T. Beikircher, T., High efficiency evacuated flat-plate solar collector for process steam production. Solar Energy 65 (1999) No. 2 pp 111-118 Bianchini, A., Guzzini, A., Pellegrini, M. and Saccani, C., Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system: Experimental measurements, performance analysis and economic assessment. Renewable Energy 111 (2017) 543-555 Bouvier, J-L, Michaux, G., Salagnac, P., Kientz, T. and Rochier, D., Experimental study of a micro combined heat and power system with a solar parabolic trough collector coupled to a steam Rankine cycle expander, Solar Energy 134 (2016) 180-192 Brunold, S., Frey, R and Frei, U., A comparison of three different collectors for process heat applications. SPF publication. http://spf.ch/fileadmin/daten/publ/procheat.pdf Busby, J., UK shallow ground temperatures for ground coupled heat exchangers. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 48, 248-260, 28 October 2015, https://0-doi-org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/10.1144/qjegh2015-077 Buttinger, F., Beikircher, T., Proll, M. and Scholkopf, W., Development of a new flat stationary evacuated CPC-collector for process heat applications Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1166-1174 Ca{\"e}r, V.H-L., De Chambriera, E., Mertina, S., Jolya, M., Schaerb, M and Scartezzinia, J-L, Optical and morphological characterisation of low refractive index materials for coatings on solar collector glazing. Renewable Energy Vol.53, May 2013, pp27-34. Chapuis, S. and Bernier, M. Seasonal storage of solar energy in borehole heat exchangers. Proc. 11th International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) meeting 2009, Glasgow, 599-606. Cohen, S. and Grossman, G., Development of a solar collector with a stationary spherical reflector/tracking absorber for industrial process heat, Solar Energy 128 (2016) 31-40 Colangelo, G., Favale, E., Miglietta, P., de Risi, A., Milanese, M. and Laforgia, D., Experimental test of an innovative high concentration nanofluid solar collector, Applied Energy 154 (2015) pp 874-881 Colangelo, G., Favale, E., Miglietta, P. and de Risi, A. Innovation in flat solar thermal collectors: A review of the last ten years’ experimental results. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) pp 1141–1159 Crisostomo, F., Hjerrild, N., Mesgari, S., Li, Q. and Taylor, R.A., A hybrid PV/T collector using spectrally selective absorbing nanofluids. Applied Energy 193 (2017) 1-14 DIN CERTCO test certificates http://www.dincertco.tuv.com accessed August 2017 DTI, Energy consumption in the United Kingdom (2001) http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.berr.gov.uk/files/file11250.pdf Duffie, J.A. and Beckman, W.A., Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 4th edition, Wiley, 2013. Ehrmann, N. and Reineke-Koch, R., Selectively coated high efficiency glazing for solar-thermal flat-plate collectors. Thin Solid Films 520 (2012) 4214-4218. Evinox data sheet (downloaded 28/11/2017): http://www.evinoxenergy.co.uk/Sites/Evinox/library/files/PHRIE{\%}20ASHP{\%}20Data{\%}20Sheet.pdf Freeman, J., Hellgardt, K. and Markides, C.N., An Assessment of Solar–Thermal Collector Designs for Small-Scale Combined Heating and Power Applications in the United Kingdom, Heat Transfer Engineering Vol. 36 , Issue 14-15,2015, doi: 10.1080/01457632.2015.995037 Gao, X-H., Theiss. W., Shen, Y-Q., Ma, P-J. and Liu, G., Optical simulation, corrosion behavior and long term thermal stability of TiC-based spectrally selective solar absorbers. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 167 (2017) 150-156 Gao, Y., Zhang, Q., Fan, R., Lin, X. And Yu, Y., Effects of thermal mass and flow rate on forced-circulation solar hot-water system: Comparison of water-in-glass and U-pipe evacuated-tube solar collectors, Solar Energy 98 (2013) 290-301 Henshall, P., Moss, R., Arya, F., Eames, P.C, Shires, S. and Hyde, T., An evacuated enclosure design for solar thermal energy applications. Grand Renewable Energy 2014 (GRE2014) International Conference and Exhibition, Tokyo, Japan, 27 July - 1 August 2014, https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/16098 Herrando, M. and Markides, C., Hybrid PV and solar-thermal systems for domestic heat and power provision in the UK: Techno-economic considerations. Applied Energy 161 (2016) 512-532 Joly, M., Antonetti, Y., Python, M., Gonzalez, M., Gascou, T., Scartezzini, J-L, Schuler, A., Novel black selective coating for tubular solar absorbers based on a sol–gel method, Solar Energy 94 (2013) 233-239 Kalogirou, S.A., Solar Energy Engineering, Second Edition, Academic Press 2014. Landelle, A., Tauveron, N., Haberschill, P., Revellin, R. and Colasson, S., Organic Rankine cycle design and performance comparison based on experimental database. Applied Energy 204 (2017) 1172-1187. Lee, D-S., Hung, T-C., Lin, J-R. and Zhao, J., Experimental investigations on solar chimney for optimal heat collection to be utilized in organic Rankine cycle. Applied Energy 154 (2015) 651-662. Leone, G. and Beccali, M., Use of finite element models for estimating thermal performance of fa{\cc}ade-integrated solar thermal collectors, Applied Energy 171 (2016) 392-404 Li, Q., Zheng, C., Shirazi, A., Mousa, O.B., Moscia, F. and Scott, J.A., Design and analysis of a medium-temperature, concentrated solar thermal collector for air-conditioning applications, Applied Energy 190 (2017) 1159-1173 Lira-Cantu´, M., Sabio, A.M., Brustenga, A., Go´mez-Romero, P., Electrochemical deposition of black nickel solar absorber coatings on stainless steel AISI316L for thermal solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 87 (2005) 685-694 Lizama-Tzec, F.I., Mac{\'i}as J.D., Estrella-Guti{\'e}rrez , M.A., Cahue-L{\'o}pez , A.C., Ar{\'e}s, O., de Coss, R., Alvarado-Gil, J.J. and Oskam, G., Electrodeposition and characterization of nanostructured black nickel selective absorber coatings for solar–thermal energy conversion. J. Materials Science: Mater Electron (2015) 26:5553–5561, DOI 10.1007/s10854-014-2195-5 Matuska, T., Sourek, B., Jirka, V. and Pokorny, N., Glazed PVT Collector with Polysiloxane Encapsulation of PV Cells: Performance and Economic Analysis, International Journal of Photoenergy, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/718316 McDonald, G.E., Spectral reflectance properties of black chrome for use as a solar selective coating, Solar Energy vol 17, 1975, pp119-122 Modjinou, M., Ji, J., Li, J., Yuan, W. and Zhou, F., A numerical and experimental study of micro-channel heat pipe solar photovoltaics thermal system. Applied Energy 206 (2017) 708-722 Moss, R.W., Shire, G.S.F., Henshall, P., Eames, P.C., Arya, F. and Hyde, T. (2017a) Optimal passage size for solar collector micro-channel and tube-on-plate absorbers. Solar Energy, September 2017 vol.153 pp718-731, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.05.030 Moss, R.W., Shire, G.S.F., Henshall, P., Eames, P.C., Arya, F. and Hyde, T. (2017b) Design and fabrication of a hydro-formed absorber for an evacuated solar collector. Submitted to Applied Thermal Engineering Moss, R.W., Shire, G.S.F., Eames, P.C., Henshall, P., Hyde, T. and Arya, F., (2017c) Design and commissioning of a virtual image solar simulator for testing thermal collectors. Solar Energy vol.159, Jan 2018 pp234-242, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.10.044 Moss, R.W., Henshall, P., Arya, F., Shire, G.S.F., Eames, P.C and Hyde, T. (2017d), Simulator testing of evacuated flat plate solar collectors for industrial heat and building integration. Being submitted to Solar Energy. Mwesigye, A. and Meyer. J.P., Optimal thermal and thermodynamic performance of a solar parabolic trough receiver with different nanofluids and at different concentration ratios, Applied Energy 193 (2017) 393-413 NEP PolyTrough 1800 datasheet accessed August 2017 http://www.nep-solar.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/NEP-Solar-Polytrough1800_Datasheet.pdf Nkwetta, D.N. and Smythe, M., The potential applications and advantages of powering solar air-conditioning systems using concentrator augmented solar collectors. Applied Energy 89 (2012) 380-386. O’Hegarty, R, Kinnane, O and McCormack, S.J., Concrete solar collectors for fa{\cc}ade integration: An experimental and numerical investigation. Applied Energy 206 (2017) 1040-1061 Palz, W. and Greif, J., Commission of the European Communities. European Solar Radiation Atlas, Third Ed., Springer (1996) p326. Purohit, I and Purohit, P, Technical and economic potential of concentrating solar thermal power generation in India, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 78 (2017) 648–66 Quoilin, S., Orosz, M., Hemond, H. and Lemort, V, Performance and design optimization of a low-cost solar organic Rankine cycle for remote power generation. Solar Energy 85 (2011) 955-966 Qu, W. Wang, R., Hong, H., Sun, J. and Jin, H., Test of a solar parabolic trough collector with rotatable axis tracking. Applied Energy xxx (2017) xxx-xxx (in press) Rad, F.M. and Fung, A.S., Solar community heating and cooling system with borehole thermal energy storage –Review of systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 1550-1561 Riggs, B.C., Biedenharn, R., Dougher, C., Ji, Y.V., Xu, Q., Romanin, V., Codd, D.S., Zahler, J.M. and Escarra, M.D., Techno-economic analysis of hybrid PV/T systems for process heat using electricity to subsidize the cost of heat. Applied Energy 208 (2017) pp1370-1378 RISE, ScenoCalc home page http://www.sp.se/en/index/services/solar/ScenoCalc/Sidor/default.aspx accessed December 2017. Rodr{\'i}guez-Hidalgo , M.C., Rodr{\'i}guez-Aumente, P.A., Lecuona, A, Guti{\'e}rrez-Urueta, G.L. and Ventas, R. Flat plate thermal solar collector efficiency: Transient behavior under working conditions. Part I: Model description and experimental validation. Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (2011) 2394-2404 Selvakumar, N. and Barshilia, H.C., Review of physical vapor deposited (PVD) spectrally selective coatings for mid- and high-temperature solar thermal applications. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 98 (2012) 1–23 SPF catalogue of solar collector test results http://www.spf.ch/index.php?id=111&L=6 accessed August 2017. TVP Solar, MT-30 datasheet, http://www.tvpsolar.com/files/pagine/1464011780_MT-Power{\%}20Datasheet{\%}20(v4.2x)(ver5).pdf accessed 12/7/2017 Su, W., Zhao, L., Deng, S., Xu, W. and Yu, Z. A limiting efficiency of subcritical Organic Rankine cycle under the constraint of working fluids. Energy 143 (2018) pp458-466. Suman, S., Khan, M.K., Pathak, M., Performance enhancement of solar collectors – a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 49 (2015) 192-210. Thorpe, University of Warwick Weather Station (online) https://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/sciencecity/programmes/internal/themes/energyefficiency/thermal/bookings/weather_station/ accessed October 2017. Wang, J., Yin, Z., Qi, J., Ma, G and Liu, X., Medium-temperature solar collectors with all-glass solar evacuated tubes, Energy Procedia 70 (2015) 126 – 129 Zambolin, E. and Col, D.D., Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions, Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1382-1396 Zima, W and Dziewa, P., Modelling of liquid flat-plate solar collector operation in transient states. Proc. IMechE Vol. 225 Part A (2010) J. Power and Energy pp 53-62. Zou, B., Dong, J., Yao, Y. and Jiang, Y., An experimental investigation on a small-sized parabolic trough solar collector for water heating in cold areas, Applied Energy 163 (2016) 396-407",
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Performance and operational effectiveness of evacuated flat plate solar collectors compared with conventional thermal, PVT and PV panels. / Moss, Roger; Henshall, Paul; Arya, Farid; Shire, Stan; Hyde, Trevor; Eames, Philip.

In: Applied Energy, Vol. Unknow, 01.01.2018, p. 1-30.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Performance and operational effectiveness of evacuated flat plate solar collectors compared with conventional thermal, PVT and PV panels

AU - Moss, Roger

AU - Henshall, Paul

AU - Arya, Farid

AU - Shire, Stan

AU - Hyde, Trevor

AU - Eames, Philip

N1 - Reference text: Abbate, P., Presentation on the TVP evacuated panel at InterSolar 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_4FD4Zxwew accessed 12/7/2017 Abdelhamid, M., Widyolar, B.K., Jiang, L., Winton, R., Yablonovitch, E., Scranton, G., Cygan, D., Abbasi, H. and Kozlov, A. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector. Applied Energy 182 (2016) 68-79 Agrawal, S. and Tiwari, G.N., Energy and exergy analysis of hybrid micro-channel photovoltaic thermal module. Solar Energy 85 (2011) 356-370. Alam, M., Singh, H., Suresh, S. and Redpath, D.A.G., Energy and economic analysis of Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) used in non-domestic buildings, Applied Energy 188 (2017) 1-8 Alobaid, M., Hughes, B., Calautit, J.K., O’Connor, D. and Heyes, A., A review of solar driven absorption cooling with photovoltaic thermal systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 76, September 2017, Pages 728–742 Amrizal, N., Chemisana, D. and Rosell, J.I., Hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors dynamic modelling. Applied Energy 101 (2013) 797-807. Ancona, M.A., Bianchi, M., Diolaiti, E., Giannuzzi, A., Marano, B., Melino, F. and Peretto, A, A novel solar concentrator system for combined heat and power application in residential sector. Applied Energy 185 (2017) 1199-1209 Beikircher, T., Möckl, M., Osgyan, P. and Streib, G, Advanced solar flat plate collectors with full area absorber, front side film and rear side vacuum superinsulation, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 141 (2015) 308-406 Benvenuti, C. and Ruzinov, V., The SRB evacuated flat solar panel, Proceedings of ECOS 2010, pp2-429 to 434. Benvenuti, C., (2013a) The SRB solar thermal panel, Europhysics News March 2013, DOI: 10.1051/epn/2013301, p16-18 Benvenuti, C, (2013b) Particle accelerators and solar panels, Fisica E. Vol29, No1-2, 2013 pp31-38 (NEG Non-evaporable getters etc) Benz, N. and T. Beikircher, T., High efficiency evacuated flat-plate solar collector for process steam production. Solar Energy 65 (1999) No. 2 pp 111-118 Bianchini, A., Guzzini, A., Pellegrini, M. and Saccani, C., Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system: Experimental measurements, performance analysis and economic assessment. Renewable Energy 111 (2017) 543-555 Bouvier, J-L, Michaux, G., Salagnac, P., Kientz, T. and Rochier, D., Experimental study of a micro combined heat and power system with a solar parabolic trough collector coupled to a steam Rankine cycle expander, Solar Energy 134 (2016) 180-192 Brunold, S., Frey, R and Frei, U., A comparison of three different collectors for process heat applications. SPF publication. http://spf.ch/fileadmin/daten/publ/procheat.pdf Busby, J., UK shallow ground temperatures for ground coupled heat exchangers. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 48, 248-260, 28 October 2015, https://0-doi-org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/10.1144/qjegh2015-077 Buttinger, F., Beikircher, T., Proll, M. and Scholkopf, W., Development of a new flat stationary evacuated CPC-collector for process heat applications Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1166-1174 Caër, V.H-L., De Chambriera, E., Mertina, S., Jolya, M., Schaerb, M and Scartezzinia, J-L, Optical and morphological characterisation of low refractive index materials for coatings on solar collector glazing. Renewable Energy Vol.53, May 2013, pp27-34. Chapuis, S. and Bernier, M. Seasonal storage of solar energy in borehole heat exchangers. Proc. 11th International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) meeting 2009, Glasgow, 599-606. Cohen, S. and Grossman, G., Development of a solar collector with a stationary spherical reflector/tracking absorber for industrial process heat, Solar Energy 128 (2016) 31-40 Colangelo, G., Favale, E., Miglietta, P., de Risi, A., Milanese, M. and Laforgia, D., Experimental test of an innovative high concentration nanofluid solar collector, Applied Energy 154 (2015) pp 874-881 Colangelo, G., Favale, E., Miglietta, P. and de Risi, A. Innovation in flat solar thermal collectors: A review of the last ten years’ experimental results. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57 (2016) pp 1141–1159 Crisostomo, F., Hjerrild, N., Mesgari, S., Li, Q. and Taylor, R.A., A hybrid PV/T collector using spectrally selective absorbing nanofluids. Applied Energy 193 (2017) 1-14 DIN CERTCO test certificates http://www.dincertco.tuv.com accessed August 2017 DTI, Energy consumption in the United Kingdom (2001) http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.berr.gov.uk/files/file11250.pdf Duffie, J.A. and Beckman, W.A., Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 4th edition, Wiley, 2013. Ehrmann, N. and Reineke-Koch, R., Selectively coated high efficiency glazing for solar-thermal flat-plate collectors. Thin Solid Films 520 (2012) 4214-4218. Evinox data sheet (downloaded 28/11/2017): http://www.evinoxenergy.co.uk/Sites/Evinox/library/files/PHRIE%20ASHP%20Data%20Sheet.pdf Freeman, J., Hellgardt, K. and Markides, C.N., An Assessment of Solar–Thermal Collector Designs for Small-Scale Combined Heating and Power Applications in the United Kingdom, Heat Transfer Engineering Vol. 36 , Issue 14-15,2015, doi: 10.1080/01457632.2015.995037 Gao, X-H., Theiss. W., Shen, Y-Q., Ma, P-J. and Liu, G., Optical simulation, corrosion behavior and long term thermal stability of TiC-based spectrally selective solar absorbers. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 167 (2017) 150-156 Gao, Y., Zhang, Q., Fan, R., Lin, X. And Yu, Y., Effects of thermal mass and flow rate on forced-circulation solar hot-water system: Comparison of water-in-glass and U-pipe evacuated-tube solar collectors, Solar Energy 98 (2013) 290-301 Henshall, P., Moss, R., Arya, F., Eames, P.C, Shires, S. and Hyde, T., An evacuated enclosure design for solar thermal energy applications. Grand Renewable Energy 2014 (GRE2014) International Conference and Exhibition, Tokyo, Japan, 27 July - 1 August 2014, https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/16098 Herrando, M. and Markides, C., Hybrid PV and solar-thermal systems for domestic heat and power provision in the UK: Techno-economic considerations. Applied Energy 161 (2016) 512-532 Joly, M., Antonetti, Y., Python, M., Gonzalez, M., Gascou, T., Scartezzini, J-L, Schuler, A., Novel black selective coating for tubular solar absorbers based on a sol–gel method, Solar Energy 94 (2013) 233-239 Kalogirou, S.A., Solar Energy Engineering, Second Edition, Academic Press 2014. Landelle, A., Tauveron, N., Haberschill, P., Revellin, R. and Colasson, S., Organic Rankine cycle design and performance comparison based on experimental database. Applied Energy 204 (2017) 1172-1187. Lee, D-S., Hung, T-C., Lin, J-R. and Zhao, J., Experimental investigations on solar chimney for optimal heat collection to be utilized in organic Rankine cycle. Applied Energy 154 (2015) 651-662. Leone, G. and Beccali, M., Use of finite element models for estimating thermal performance of façade-integrated solar thermal collectors, Applied Energy 171 (2016) 392-404 Li, Q., Zheng, C., Shirazi, A., Mousa, O.B., Moscia, F. and Scott, J.A., Design and analysis of a medium-temperature, concentrated solar thermal collector for air-conditioning applications, Applied Energy 190 (2017) 1159-1173 Lira-Cantu´, M., Sabio, A.M., Brustenga, A., Go´mez-Romero, P., Electrochemical deposition of black nickel solar absorber coatings on stainless steel AISI316L for thermal solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 87 (2005) 685-694 Lizama-Tzec, F.I., Macías J.D., Estrella-Gutiérrez , M.A., Cahue-López , A.C., Arés, O., de Coss, R., Alvarado-Gil, J.J. and Oskam, G., Electrodeposition and characterization of nanostructured black nickel selective absorber coatings for solar–thermal energy conversion. J. Materials Science: Mater Electron (2015) 26:5553–5561, DOI 10.1007/s10854-014-2195-5 Matuska, T., Sourek, B., Jirka, V. and Pokorny, N., Glazed PVT Collector with Polysiloxane Encapsulation of PV Cells: Performance and Economic Analysis, International Journal of Photoenergy, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/718316 McDonald, G.E., Spectral reflectance properties of black chrome for use as a solar selective coating, Solar Energy vol 17, 1975, pp119-122 Modjinou, M., Ji, J., Li, J., Yuan, W. and Zhou, F., A numerical and experimental study of micro-channel heat pipe solar photovoltaics thermal system. Applied Energy 206 (2017) 708-722 Moss, R.W., Shire, G.S.F., Henshall, P., Eames, P.C., Arya, F. and Hyde, T. (2017a) Optimal passage size for solar collector micro-channel and tube-on-plate absorbers. Solar Energy, September 2017 vol.153 pp718-731, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.05.030 Moss, R.W., Shire, G.S.F., Henshall, P., Eames, P.C., Arya, F. and Hyde, T. (2017b) Design and fabrication of a hydro-formed absorber for an evacuated solar collector. Submitted to Applied Thermal Engineering Moss, R.W., Shire, G.S.F., Eames, P.C., Henshall, P., Hyde, T. and Arya, F., (2017c) Design and commissioning of a virtual image solar simulator for testing thermal collectors. Solar Energy vol.159, Jan 2018 pp234-242, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.10.044 Moss, R.W., Henshall, P., Arya, F., Shire, G.S.F., Eames, P.C and Hyde, T. (2017d), Simulator testing of evacuated flat plate solar collectors for industrial heat and building integration. Being submitted to Solar Energy. Mwesigye, A. and Meyer. J.P., Optimal thermal and thermodynamic performance of a solar parabolic trough receiver with different nanofluids and at different concentration ratios, Applied Energy 193 (2017) 393-413 NEP PolyTrough 1800 datasheet accessed August 2017 http://www.nep-solar.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/NEP-Solar-Polytrough1800_Datasheet.pdf Nkwetta, D.N. and Smythe, M., The potential applications and advantages of powering solar air-conditioning systems using concentrator augmented solar collectors. Applied Energy 89 (2012) 380-386. O’Hegarty, R, Kinnane, O and McCormack, S.J., Concrete solar collectors for façade integration: An experimental and numerical investigation. Applied Energy 206 (2017) 1040-1061 Palz, W. and Greif, J., Commission of the European Communities. European Solar Radiation Atlas, Third Ed., Springer (1996) p326. 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PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - The concept of an evacuated flat plate (EFP) collector was proposed over 40 years ago but, despite its professed advantages, very few manufacturers have developed commercial versions. This situation suggests both technical difficulties in manufacturing a competitively-priced sealed for life panel and a lack of awareness of the benefits of such panels. This paper demonstrates an evacuated flat plate simulation that closely models experimental efficiency measurements. Having established the validity of the model, it compares published data for a commercial EFP collector with predictions for an optimal design to investigate whether any further efficiency improvement might be possible. The optimised design is then evaluated against alternative solar energy devices by modelling a number of possible applications. These comparisons should inform choices about solar options for delivering heat: EFP collectors are well-suited to some of these applications.An evacuated flat plate solar thermal collector with a 0.5x0.5 m absorber was tested under a solar simulator. The test conditions spanned the range 200

AB - The concept of an evacuated flat plate (EFP) collector was proposed over 40 years ago but, despite its professed advantages, very few manufacturers have developed commercial versions. This situation suggests both technical difficulties in manufacturing a competitively-priced sealed for life panel and a lack of awareness of the benefits of such panels. This paper demonstrates an evacuated flat plate simulation that closely models experimental efficiency measurements. Having established the validity of the model, it compares published data for a commercial EFP collector with predictions for an optimal design to investigate whether any further efficiency improvement might be possible. The optimised design is then evaluated against alternative solar energy devices by modelling a number of possible applications. These comparisons should inform choices about solar options for delivering heat: EFP collectors are well-suited to some of these applications.An evacuated flat plate solar thermal collector with a 0.5x0.5 m absorber was tested under a solar simulator. The test conditions spanned the range 200

KW - Evacuated

KW - flat plate

KW - solar

KW - collector

KW - Organic Rankine cycle

KW - weather

U2 - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.01.001

DO - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.01.001

M3 - Article

VL - Unknow

SP - 1

EP - 30

JO - Applied Energy

T2 - Applied Energy

JF - Applied Energy

SN - 0306-2619

ER -