Perceived determinants to alcohol consumption and misuse: a survey of university students

Nicholas Muli, Briege M Lagan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

AIM: Before an attempt is made to develop any population-specific behavioural change programme, it is important to know what the factors that influence behaviours are. The aim of this study was to identify what are the perceived determinants that attribute to young people's choices to both consume and misuse alcohol.METHOD: Using a descriptive survey design, a web-based questionnaire based on the Theory of Triadic Influence was administered to students aged 18-29 years at one university in Northern Ireland.RESULTS: Out of the total respondents ( n = 595), knowledge scores on alcohol consumption and the health risks associated with heavy episodic drinking were high (92.4%, n = 550). Over half (54.1%, n = 322) cited the Internet as their main source for alcohol-related information. The three most perceived influential factors of inclination to misuse alcohol were strains/conflict within the family home ( M = 2.98, standard deviation ( SD) = 0.18, 98.7%, n = 587), risk taking/curiosity behaviour ( M = 2.97, SD = 0.27, 97.3%, n = 579) and the desire not to be socially alienated ( M = 2.94, SD = 0.33, 96%, n = 571). Females were statistically significantly more likely to be influenced by desire not to be socially alienated than males ( p = .029). Religion and personal reasons were the most commonly cited reasons for not drinking.CONCLUSION: Future initiatives to reduce alcohol misuse and alcohol-related harms need to focus on changing social normative beliefs and attitudes around alcohol consumption and the family and environmental factors that influence the choice of young adult's alcohol drinking behaviour. Investment in multi-component interventions may be a useful approach.
LanguageEnglish
JournalPerspectives in Public Health
VolumeMay 17
Early online date24 May 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

Fingerprint

Alcohol Drinking
Alcohols
Students
Drinking
Northern Ireland
Drinking Behavior
Family Conflict
Exploratory Behavior
Religion
Risk-Taking
Internet
Young Adult
Surveys and Questionnaires
Health
Population

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • Misuse
  • Determinants
  • Perceptions
  • Students
  • Theory of Triadic Influence

Cite this

@article{065ee74300fc4a718eed71713a13ef7a,
title = "Perceived determinants to alcohol consumption and misuse: a survey of university students",
abstract = "AIM: Before an attempt is made to develop any population-specific behavioural change programme, it is important to know what the factors that influence behaviours are. The aim of this study was to identify what are the perceived determinants that attribute to young people's choices to both consume and misuse alcohol.METHOD: Using a descriptive survey design, a web-based questionnaire based on the Theory of Triadic Influence was administered to students aged 18-29 years at one university in Northern Ireland.RESULTS: Out of the total respondents ( n = 595), knowledge scores on alcohol consumption and the health risks associated with heavy episodic drinking were high (92.4{\%}, n = 550). Over half (54.1{\%}, n = 322) cited the Internet as their main source for alcohol-related information. The three most perceived influential factors of inclination to misuse alcohol were strains/conflict within the family home ( M = 2.98, standard deviation ( SD) = 0.18, 98.7{\%}, n = 587), risk taking/curiosity behaviour ( M = 2.97, SD = 0.27, 97.3{\%}, n = 579) and the desire not to be socially alienated ( M = 2.94, SD = 0.33, 96{\%}, n = 571). Females were statistically significantly more likely to be influenced by desire not to be socially alienated than males ( p = .029). Religion and personal reasons were the most commonly cited reasons for not drinking.CONCLUSION: Future initiatives to reduce alcohol misuse and alcohol-related harms need to focus on changing social normative beliefs and attitudes around alcohol consumption and the family and environmental factors that influence the choice of young adult's alcohol drinking behaviour. Investment in multi-component interventions may be a useful approach.",
keywords = "Alcohol, Misuse, Determinants, Perceptions, Students, Theory of Triadic Influence",
author = "Nicholas Muli and Lagan, {Briege M}",
note = "Reference text: 1. O’Keefe JH, Bybee KA, Lavie CJ. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: The razor-sharp double-edged sword. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2007; 50(11): 1009–14. 2. Roerecke M, Rehm J. On the evidence of a cardio protective effect of alcohol consumption. Addiction 2013; 108(2): 429–31. 3. Smith L, Foxcroft D. Drinking in the UK: An Exploration of Trends. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2009. 4. Home Office. The Governments Alcohol Strategy. London: The Stationary Office, 2012. 5. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Alcohol-use disorders: Diagnosis and management. Available online at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs11/chapter/introduction-and-overview (2011, accessed 21 March 2017). 6. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. New Strategic Direction for Alcohol and Drugs. Phase 2: 2011–2016. Belfast: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, 2011. 7. Brunner LS, Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, . Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, 12th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010. 8. Moreira MT, Smith LA, Foxcroft D. Social norms interventions to reduce alcohol misuse in university or college students. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009; 3: CD006748. 9. World Health Organization (WHO). Status report on alcohol and health in 35 European countries. Available online at: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/190430/Status-Report-on-Alcohol-and-Health-in-35-European-Countries.pdf (2016, accessed 21 March 17). 10. Royal College of Nursing. Health Committee – The Government’s alcohol strategy written evidence from Royal College of Nursing (GAS 29). Available online at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmselect/cmhealth/132/132vw26.htm (2016, accessed 21 March 2017). 11. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Alcohol use disorders: Preventing harmful drinking. Available online at: http://publications.nice.org.uk/alcohol-use-disorders-preventing-harmful-drinking-ph24/glossary (2010, accessed 21 March 2017). 12. Haber JR, Harris-Olenak B, Burroughs T, . Residual effects: Young adult diagnostic drinking predicts late-life health outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2016; 77(6): 859–67. 13. World Health Organization (WHO). Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. Geneva: WHO, 2010. 14. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. Adult Drinking Patterns in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, 2013. 15. Ewing JA. Detecting alcoholism: The CAGE questionnaire. Journal of the American Medical Association 1984; 252(14): 1905–7. 16. Wicki M, Kuntsche E, Gmel G. Drinking at European universities? A review of students’ alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors 2010; 35: 913–24. 17. Seaman P, Ikegwuonu T. Drinking to Belong: Understanding Young Adults’ Alcohol Use within Social Networks. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2010. 18. Schry AR, White SW. Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: A meta-analysis. Addictive Behaviors 2013; 38: 2690–706. 19. World Health Organization. Heavy episodic drinkers among drinkers: Situation and trends. Available online at: http://www.who.int/gho/alcohol/consumption_patterns/heavy_episodic_drinkers_text/en/ (2014, accessed 21 March 2017). 20. Health Promotion Agency. Attitudes and Behaviour of Young Adult Drinkers in Northern Ireland: A Qualitative Study. Belfast: Health Promotion Agency, 2003. 21. Flay BR, Snyder FJ, Petratitis J. The theory of triadic influence. In DiClemente RJ, Crosby RA, Kegler MC (eds) Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research, 2nd edn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2009. 22. Quinn PD, Fromme K. Alcohol use and related problems among college students and their non college peers: The competing roles of personality and peer influence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2011; 72(4): 622–32. 23. Hibell B, Guttormsson U, Ahlstr{\"o}m S, . The 2007 ESPAD report. Substance use among students in 35 European countries. Available online at: http://www.espad.org/uploads/espad_reports/2007/the_2007_espad_report-full_091006.pdf (2013, accessed 21 March 2017). 24. Bewick B, Mulhern B, Barkham M, . Changes in undergraduate student alcohol consumption as they progress through university. BMC Public Health 2008; 8(1): 163. 25. Donath C, Gr{\"a}{\ss}el E, Baier D, . Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: Ultimate and distal factors – A representative study. BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 263. 26. Pallant J. SPSS Survival Manual. A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis using SPSS, 6th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2016. 27. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Northern Ireland multiple deprivation measure 2010. Available online at: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/deprivation/nimdm_2010.htm (2010, accessed 21 March 2017). 28. Hsu CL, Reid LD. Social status, binge drinking, and social satisfaction among college students. Paper presented at the 107thAnnual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, 20th August 2012, Denver, Colorado. 29. Mallett KA, Bachrach RL, Turrisi R. Examining the unique influence of interpersonal and intrapersonal drinking perceptions on alcohol consumption among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2009; 70(2): 178–85. 30. Fairlie AM, Wood MD, Laird RD. Prospective protective effect of parents on peer influences and college alcohol involvement. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2012; 26(1): 30–41. 31. Lorant V, Nicaise P, Soto VE, . Alcohol drinking among college students: College responsibility for personal troubles. BMC Public Health 2013; 13(1): 615. 32. Van Damme J, Maes L, Clays E, . Social motives for drinking in students should not be neglected in efforts to decrease problematic drinking. Health Education Research 2013; 28(4): 640–50. 33. Kuntsche E, Cooper ML. Drinking to have fun and to get drunk: Motives as predictors of weekend drinking over and above usual drinking habits. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2010; 110(3): 259–62. 34. Valentine G, Hooloway SL, Jayne M, . Drinking Places: Where People Drink and Why. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2007. 35. Bryden A, Roberts B, McKee M, . A systematic review of the influence on alcohol use of community level availability and marketing of alcohol. Health Place 2012; 18(2): 349–57. 36. Gilmore I. Fighting alcohol’s harms. British Medical Journal 2017; 356: j990. 37. Alcohol Focus. Alcohol Focus Scotland campaigns for evidence-based policies to reduce alcohol-related harm. Available online at: http://www.alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk/campaigns-policy/ (2017, accessed 21 March 2017). 38. Siegfried N, Pienaar DC, Ataguba JE, . Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014; 11: CD010704. 39. Kestila L, Martelin T, Rahkonen O, . Epidemiology and prevention: Childhood and current determinants of heavy drinking in early adulthood. Alcohol and Alcoholism 2008; 43(4): 460–9. 40. Surkan PJ, Fielding-Miller R, Melchior M. Parental relationship satisfaction in French young adults associated with alcohol abuse and dependence. Addictive Behaviors 2012; 37(3): 313–7. 41. Huang J, DeJong W, Schneider SK, . Endorsed reasons for not drinking alcohol: A comparison of college student drinkers and abstainers. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2011; 34(1): 64–73. 42. Herring A, Hasking P, Allen F. The role of social motives in the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption. Addictive Behaviors 2012; 37(12): 1335–41. 43. Hartigan A, Coe N. Internet influences on adolescent attitudes to alcohol. A report for alcohol research UK. Available online at: http://www.ias.org.uk/uploads/pdf/IAS{\%}20reports/aruk-ias-finalreport-310512.pdf (2013, accessed 21 March 2017). 44. Green J, Tones K, Cross R, . Health Promotion. Planning and Strategies, 3rd edn. London: Sage, 2015. 45. Parahoo K. Nursing Research: Principles, Process and Issues, 3rd edn. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2014. 46. Biau DJ, Kern{\'e}is S, Porcher R. Statistics in brief: The importance of sample size in the planning and interpretation of medical research. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2008; 466(9): 2282–8.",
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Perceived determinants to alcohol consumption and misuse: a survey of university students. / Muli, Nicholas; Lagan, Briege M.

In: Perspectives in Public Health, Vol. May 17, 01.11.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Perceived determinants to alcohol consumption and misuse: a survey of university students

AU - Muli, Nicholas

AU - Lagan, Briege M

N1 - Reference text: 1. O’Keefe JH, Bybee KA, Lavie CJ. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: The razor-sharp double-edged sword. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2007; 50(11): 1009–14. 2. Roerecke M, Rehm J. On the evidence of a cardio protective effect of alcohol consumption. Addiction 2013; 108(2): 429–31. 3. Smith L, Foxcroft D. Drinking in the UK: An Exploration of Trends. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2009. 4. Home Office. The Governments Alcohol Strategy. London: The Stationary Office, 2012. 5. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Alcohol-use disorders: Diagnosis and management. Available online at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs11/chapter/introduction-and-overview (2011, accessed 21 March 2017). 6. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. New Strategic Direction for Alcohol and Drugs. Phase 2: 2011–2016. Belfast: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, 2011. 7. Brunner LS, Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, . Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, 12th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010. 8. Moreira MT, Smith LA, Foxcroft D. Social norms interventions to reduce alcohol misuse in university or college students. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009; 3: CD006748. 9. World Health Organization (WHO). Status report on alcohol and health in 35 European countries. Available online at: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/190430/Status-Report-on-Alcohol-and-Health-in-35-European-Countries.pdf (2016, accessed 21 March 17). 10. Royal College of Nursing. Health Committee – The Government’s alcohol strategy written evidence from Royal College of Nursing (GAS 29). Available online at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmselect/cmhealth/132/132vw26.htm (2016, accessed 21 March 2017). 11. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Alcohol use disorders: Preventing harmful drinking. Available online at: http://publications.nice.org.uk/alcohol-use-disorders-preventing-harmful-drinking-ph24/glossary (2010, accessed 21 March 2017). 12. Haber JR, Harris-Olenak B, Burroughs T, . Residual effects: Young adult diagnostic drinking predicts late-life health outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2016; 77(6): 859–67. 13. World Health Organization (WHO). Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. Geneva: WHO, 2010. 14. Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. Adult Drinking Patterns in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, 2013. 15. Ewing JA. Detecting alcoholism: The CAGE questionnaire. Journal of the American Medical Association 1984; 252(14): 1905–7. 16. Wicki M, Kuntsche E, Gmel G. Drinking at European universities? A review of students’ alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors 2010; 35: 913–24. 17. Seaman P, Ikegwuonu T. Drinking to Belong: Understanding Young Adults’ Alcohol Use within Social Networks. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2010. 18. Schry AR, White SW. Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: A meta-analysis. Addictive Behaviors 2013; 38: 2690–706. 19. World Health Organization. Heavy episodic drinkers among drinkers: Situation and trends. Available online at: http://www.who.int/gho/alcohol/consumption_patterns/heavy_episodic_drinkers_text/en/ (2014, accessed 21 March 2017). 20. Health Promotion Agency. Attitudes and Behaviour of Young Adult Drinkers in Northern Ireland: A Qualitative Study. Belfast: Health Promotion Agency, 2003. 21. Flay BR, Snyder FJ, Petratitis J. The theory of triadic influence. In DiClemente RJ, Crosby RA, Kegler MC (eds) Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research, 2nd edn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2009. 22. Quinn PD, Fromme K. Alcohol use and related problems among college students and their non college peers: The competing roles of personality and peer influence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2011; 72(4): 622–32. 23. Hibell B, Guttormsson U, Ahlström S, . The 2007 ESPAD report. Substance use among students in 35 European countries. Available online at: http://www.espad.org/uploads/espad_reports/2007/the_2007_espad_report-full_091006.pdf (2013, accessed 21 March 2017). 24. Bewick B, Mulhern B, Barkham M, . Changes in undergraduate student alcohol consumption as they progress through university. BMC Public Health 2008; 8(1): 163. 25. Donath C, Gräßel E, Baier D, . Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: Ultimate and distal factors – A representative study. BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 263. 26. Pallant J. SPSS Survival Manual. A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis using SPSS, 6th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2016. 27. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Northern Ireland multiple deprivation measure 2010. Available online at: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/deprivation/nimdm_2010.htm (2010, accessed 21 March 2017). 28. Hsu CL, Reid LD. Social status, binge drinking, and social satisfaction among college students. Paper presented at the 107thAnnual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, 20th August 2012, Denver, Colorado. 29. Mallett KA, Bachrach RL, Turrisi R. Examining the unique influence of interpersonal and intrapersonal drinking perceptions on alcohol consumption among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2009; 70(2): 178–85. 30. Fairlie AM, Wood MD, Laird RD. Prospective protective effect of parents on peer influences and college alcohol involvement. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2012; 26(1): 30–41. 31. Lorant V, Nicaise P, Soto VE, . Alcohol drinking among college students: College responsibility for personal troubles. BMC Public Health 2013; 13(1): 615. 32. Van Damme J, Maes L, Clays E, . Social motives for drinking in students should not be neglected in efforts to decrease problematic drinking. Health Education Research 2013; 28(4): 640–50. 33. Kuntsche E, Cooper ML. Drinking to have fun and to get drunk: Motives as predictors of weekend drinking over and above usual drinking habits. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2010; 110(3): 259–62. 34. Valentine G, Hooloway SL, Jayne M, . Drinking Places: Where People Drink and Why. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2007. 35. Bryden A, Roberts B, McKee M, . A systematic review of the influence on alcohol use of community level availability and marketing of alcohol. Health Place 2012; 18(2): 349–57. 36. Gilmore I. Fighting alcohol’s harms. British Medical Journal 2017; 356: j990. 37. Alcohol Focus. Alcohol Focus Scotland campaigns for evidence-based policies to reduce alcohol-related harm. Available online at: http://www.alcohol-focus-scotland.org.uk/campaigns-policy/ (2017, accessed 21 March 2017). 38. Siegfried N, Pienaar DC, Ataguba JE, . Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014; 11: CD010704. 39. Kestila L, Martelin T, Rahkonen O, . Epidemiology and prevention: Childhood and current determinants of heavy drinking in early adulthood. Alcohol and Alcoholism 2008; 43(4): 460–9. 40. Surkan PJ, Fielding-Miller R, Melchior M. Parental relationship satisfaction in French young adults associated with alcohol abuse and dependence. Addictive Behaviors 2012; 37(3): 313–7. 41. Huang J, DeJong W, Schneider SK, . Endorsed reasons for not drinking alcohol: A comparison of college student drinkers and abstainers. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2011; 34(1): 64–73. 42. Herring A, Hasking P, Allen F. The role of social motives in the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption. Addictive Behaviors 2012; 37(12): 1335–41. 43. Hartigan A, Coe N. Internet influences on adolescent attitudes to alcohol. A report for alcohol research UK. Available online at: http://www.ias.org.uk/uploads/pdf/IAS%20reports/aruk-ias-finalreport-310512.pdf (2013, accessed 21 March 2017). 44. Green J, Tones K, Cross R, . Health Promotion. Planning and Strategies, 3rd edn. London: Sage, 2015. 45. Parahoo K. Nursing Research: Principles, Process and Issues, 3rd edn. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2014. 46. Biau DJ, Kernéis S, Porcher R. Statistics in brief: The importance of sample size in the planning and interpretation of medical research. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2008; 466(9): 2282–8.

PY - 2017/11/1

Y1 - 2017/11/1

N2 - AIM: Before an attempt is made to develop any population-specific behavioural change programme, it is important to know what the factors that influence behaviours are. The aim of this study was to identify what are the perceived determinants that attribute to young people's choices to both consume and misuse alcohol.METHOD: Using a descriptive survey design, a web-based questionnaire based on the Theory of Triadic Influence was administered to students aged 18-29 years at one university in Northern Ireland.RESULTS: Out of the total respondents ( n = 595), knowledge scores on alcohol consumption and the health risks associated with heavy episodic drinking were high (92.4%, n = 550). Over half (54.1%, n = 322) cited the Internet as their main source for alcohol-related information. The three most perceived influential factors of inclination to misuse alcohol were strains/conflict within the family home ( M = 2.98, standard deviation ( SD) = 0.18, 98.7%, n = 587), risk taking/curiosity behaviour ( M = 2.97, SD = 0.27, 97.3%, n = 579) and the desire not to be socially alienated ( M = 2.94, SD = 0.33, 96%, n = 571). Females were statistically significantly more likely to be influenced by desire not to be socially alienated than males ( p = .029). Religion and personal reasons were the most commonly cited reasons for not drinking.CONCLUSION: Future initiatives to reduce alcohol misuse and alcohol-related harms need to focus on changing social normative beliefs and attitudes around alcohol consumption and the family and environmental factors that influence the choice of young adult's alcohol drinking behaviour. Investment in multi-component interventions may be a useful approach.

AB - AIM: Before an attempt is made to develop any population-specific behavioural change programme, it is important to know what the factors that influence behaviours are. The aim of this study was to identify what are the perceived determinants that attribute to young people's choices to both consume and misuse alcohol.METHOD: Using a descriptive survey design, a web-based questionnaire based on the Theory of Triadic Influence was administered to students aged 18-29 years at one university in Northern Ireland.RESULTS: Out of the total respondents ( n = 595), knowledge scores on alcohol consumption and the health risks associated with heavy episodic drinking were high (92.4%, n = 550). Over half (54.1%, n = 322) cited the Internet as their main source for alcohol-related information. The three most perceived influential factors of inclination to misuse alcohol were strains/conflict within the family home ( M = 2.98, standard deviation ( SD) = 0.18, 98.7%, n = 587), risk taking/curiosity behaviour ( M = 2.97, SD = 0.27, 97.3%, n = 579) and the desire not to be socially alienated ( M = 2.94, SD = 0.33, 96%, n = 571). Females were statistically significantly more likely to be influenced by desire not to be socially alienated than males ( p = .029). Religion and personal reasons were the most commonly cited reasons for not drinking.CONCLUSION: Future initiatives to reduce alcohol misuse and alcohol-related harms need to focus on changing social normative beliefs and attitudes around alcohol consumption and the family and environmental factors that influence the choice of young adult's alcohol drinking behaviour. Investment in multi-component interventions may be a useful approach.

KW - Alcohol

KW - Misuse

KW - Determinants

KW - Perceptions

KW - Students

KW - Theory of Triadic Influence

U2 - 10.1177/1757913917710569

DO - 10.1177/1757913917710569

M3 - Article

VL - May 17

JO - Perspectives in Public Health

T2 - Perspectives in Public Health

JF - Perspectives in Public Health

SN - 1757-9139

ER -