‘People have a knack of making you feel excluded if they catch on to your difference’: Transgender experiences of exclusion in sport.

Owen Hargie, David Mitchell, Ian Somerville

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    16 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    While there is a growing literature in the field of gender, sexuality and sport, there is a dearth of research into the lived experiences of transgender people in sport. The present study addresses this research gap by exploring and analysing the narratives of transgender people in relation to their experiences of sport and physical activity. These narratives are examined within the theoretical rubrics of social exclusion and minority stress theory. The findings from in-depth interviews with ten transgender persons are detailed. Four interconnected themes emerged from the interviewee accounts: the intimidating nature of the changing/locker room environment; the impact of alienating sports experiences at school; the fear of public space and how this drastically constrained their ability to engage in sport and physical activity; and, the overall effects of being denied the social, health and well-being aspects of sport. The findings are discussed in relation to the distinctive quality of transgender exclusion, and the related distal and proximal stressors experienced by this particular minority group.
    LanguageEnglish
    JournalInternational Review for the Sociology of Sport.
    VolumeOnline
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2015

    Fingerprint

    Sports
    exclusion
    experience
    minority
    narrative
    public space
    sexuality
    well-being
    anxiety
    human being
    gender
    ability
    interview
    health
    school
    Group

    Keywords

    • Transgender people
    • LGBT
    • sport
    • social exclusion
    • minority stress theory.

    Cite this

    @article{dc7a35683a524e04981a7f88ba937a65,
    title = "‘People have a knack of making you feel excluded if they catch on to your difference’: Transgender experiences of exclusion in sport.",
    abstract = "While there is a growing literature in the field of gender, sexuality and sport, there is a dearth of research into the lived experiences of transgender people in sport. The present study addresses this research gap by exploring and analysing the narratives of transgender people in relation to their experiences of sport and physical activity. These narratives are examined within the theoretical rubrics of social exclusion and minority stress theory. The findings from in-depth interviews with ten transgender persons are detailed. Four interconnected themes emerged from the interviewee accounts: the intimidating nature of the changing/locker room environment; the impact of alienating sports experiences at school; the fear of public space and how this drastically constrained their ability to engage in sport and physical activity; and, the overall effects of being denied the social, health and well-being aspects of sport. The findings are discussed in relation to the distinctive quality of transgender exclusion, and the related distal and proximal stressors experienced by this particular minority group.",
    keywords = "Transgender people, LGBT, sport, social exclusion, minority stress theory.",
    author = "Owen Hargie and David Mitchell and Ian Somerville",
    note = "Reference text: Abrams D, Hogg M and Marques J (eds) (2005) The Social Psychology of Inclusion and Exclusion. Philadelphia: Psychology Press. Alvesson M and Skoldberg K (2009) Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research. London: Sage. Anderson E (ed) (2013) Sport, Masculinities and Sexualities. Abingdon: Routledge. Bailey R (2005) Evaluating the relationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion. Educational Review 57(1): 71–90. Barnes M (2005) Social Exclusion in Great Britain: An Empirical Investigation and Comparison with the EU. Aldershot: Ashgate. Brackenridge C, Alldred P, Jarvis A, et al. (2008) A Literature Review of Sexual Orientation in Sport: A Summary. Centre for Youth Sport and Athlete Welfare, Brunel University. Available at: https://www.sportengland.org/media/174173/so-summary-final1.pdf (accessed 10 April 2015). Burchardt T, LeGrand J and Piachaud D (2002a) Introduction. In: Hills J, LeGrand J and Piachaud D (eds) Understanding Social Exclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.1-12. Burchardt T, LeGrand J and Piachaud D (2002b) Degrees of exclusion: Developing a dynamic, multidimensional measure. In: Hills J, LeGrand J and Piachaud D (eds) Understanding Social Exclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.30–43. Buzuvis E (2011) Transgender student-athletes and sex-segregated sport: Developing policies of inclusion for intercollegiate and interscholastic athletics. Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law, 21(1). Available at: http://scholarship.shu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=sports_entertainment (accessed 13 January, 2015). Caudwell J (2014) [Transgender] young men: gendered subjectivities and the physically active body. Sport, Education and Society. DOI:10.1080/13573322.2012.672320. Caudwell J and Browne K (eds) (2013) Sexualities, Spaces and Leisure Studies. Abingdon: Routledge. Cavanagh S and Sykes H (2006) Transsexual bodies at the Olympics: The International Olympic Committee's Policy on transexual athletes at the 2004 Athens summer games. Body & Society 12(3): 75-102. Clark S and Paechter C (2007) Why can’t girls play football? Gender dynamics and the playground. Sport, Education and Society. DOI: 10.1080/13573320701464085. Coalter F (2007) A Wider Social Role for Sport. Who's Keeping the Score? Abingdon: Routledge. Collins M and Kay T (2014) Sport and Social Exclusion 2nd edition. Abingdon: Routledge. Dagkas S and Armour K (eds) (2012) Inclusion and Exclusion through Youth Sport. Abingdon: Routledge. Dionigi R (2006) Competitive sport as leisure in later life: negotiations, discourse, and aging. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 28(2): 181–196. Federico B, Falese L, Marandola D and Capelli G (2013) Socioeconomic differences in sport and physical activity among Italian adults. Journal of Sports Sciences. 10.1080/02640414.2012.736630. Effrig J, Bieschke K and Locke B (2011) Examining victimization and psychological distress in transgender college students. Journal of College Counseling 14(2): 143-157. GLAAD (2014) Media Reference Guide 9th Edition: Transgender Issues. Available at: http://www.glaad.org/sites/default/files/GLAAD{\%}20MRG_9th.pdf (accessed 22 March 2015). Grossman AH and D’Augelli AR (2007) Transgender youth and life-threatening behaviors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 37(5): 527–537. DOI:10.1521/suli.2007.37.5.527 Halberstam J (1998) Female Masculinity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Hansson U and Depret M (2007) Equality Mainstreaming: Policy and Practice for Transgender People. Belfast, Institute for Conflict Research. Available at: http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/transgenderequality22may07.pdf (accessed 12 April, 2015). Hargie O, Somerville I and Mitchell D (2015) Social Exclusion and Sport in Northern Ireland. Jordanstown, Northern Ireland: Ulster University. Hargreaves J and Anderson E (eds) (2014) Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality. Abingdon: Routledge. Kauer K and Krane V (2013) Sexual identity and sport. In: Roper E (ed) Gender Relations in Sport. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. 53-72. Kenagy G (2005) Transgender health: Findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia. Health & Social Work 30(1): 19–26. Keogh P, Reid D and Weatherburn P (2006) Lambeth LGBT Matters: The Needs and Experiences of Lesbians, Gay Men, Bisexual and Trans Men And Women in Lambeth. Lambeth: Sigma Research. Available at: http://www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/files/report2006c.pdf (accessed 10 March, 2014). Lake R (2013) ‘They treat me like I’m scum’: Established-outsider relations in a British tennis club. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(1): 112-128. Le Blanc A, Frost D and Wight R (2015) Minority stress and stress proliferation among same-sex and other marginalized couples. Journal of Marriage and Family 77: 40–59. Levitas R (2006) The concept and measurement of social exclusion. In: Pantazis C, Gordon D and Levitas R (eds) Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain. Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 123-160. Love A (2014) Transgender exclusion and inclusion in sport. In: Hargreaves J and Anderson E (eds) Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 376-383. Lucas-Carr C and Krane V (2011) What is the T in LGBT? Supporting transgender athletes through sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist 25(4): 532-548. Lucas-Carr C and Krane V (2012) Troubling sport or troubled by sport? Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education 6(1): 22-44. Mathy RM (2002) Transgender identity and suicidality in a nonclinical sample: Sexual orientation, psychiatric history, and compulsive behaviors. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality 42(4): 89–101. Meyer IH (2003) Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin 129(5): 674–697. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674 Meyer IH and Northridge ME (eds) (2007) The Health of Sexual Minorities: Public Health Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Populations. New York: Springer. Pascoe EA and Richman LS (2009) Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin 135(4): 531-554. DOI: 10.1037/a0016059 Pierson J (2010) Tackling Social Exclusion second edition. Abingdon: Routledge. Putnam R (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster. Rankin S, Weber G, Blumenfeld W and Fraze S (2010) 2010 State of Higher Education for LGBT People. Charlotte, NC: Campus Pride. Reeser J (2005) Gender identity and sport: Is the playing field level? British Journal of Sports Medicine 39(10): 695–699. Scraton S and Flintoff A (eds) (2002) Gender and Sport: A Reader. Abingdon: Routledge. Semerjian TZ and Cohen JH (2006) ‘FTM means female to me’: transgender athletes performing gender. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal 15(2): 28-43. Silver H and Miller S (2003) Social exclusion: the European approach to social disadvantage. Indicators 2(2): 5-21. Smith M, Cuthbertson S and Gale N (2012) Out for Sport: Tackling Transphobia in Sport. Transgender Specific Companion Report. Edinburgh, Scotland: Equality Network. Available at: http://www.equality-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Transgender-specific-companion-report.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015). Spaaij R, Magee J and Jeanes R (2014) Sport and Social Exclusion in Global Society. Abingdon: Routledge. Sports Council Equality Group (2013) Transsexual People and Competitive Sport: Guidelines for National Governing Bodies of Sport. London: Sports Council Equality Group. Available at: http://www.sportni.net/sportni/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/TranssexualPeopleandCompetitiveSportGuidanceforNationalGoverningBodies.pdf (accessed 10 April 2015). Stalsberg R and Pedersen A (2010) Effects of socioeconomic status on the physical activity in adolescents: A systematic review of the evidence. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01047.x. Sullivan CF (2011) Gender verification and gender policies in elite sport: Eligibility and ‘fair play’. Journal of Sport and Social Issues. DOI: 10.1177/0193723511426293. Sykes H (2006) Transsexual and transgender policies in sport. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 15(1): 3-13. Sykes H (2011) Queer Bodies: Sexualities, Genders and Fatness in Physical Education. New York: Peter Lang. Symons C and Hemphill D (2006) Trangendering sex and sport in the Gay Games. In: Caudwell, J (ed) Sport, Sexualities and Queer/Theory. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 109-128. Symons C, Sbaraglia M, Hillier L and Mitchell A (2010) Come Out to Play: The Sports Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People in Victoria. Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living; School of Sport and Exercise Science, Victoria University, Melbourne. Available at: http://www.glhv.org.au/files/ComeOutToPlay.pdf (accessed 12 October, 2014). Tagg B (2012) Transgender netballers: ethical issues and lived realities. Sociology of Sport Journal 29(2):151-167. Travers A (2006) Queering sport: Lesbian softball leagues and the transgender challenge. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. DOI: 10.1177/1012690207078070. Travers A and Deri J (2011) Transgender inclusion and the changing face of lesbian softball leagues. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 41(3-4): 431–446. Tunstall R (2011) Social Housing and Social Exclusion 2000-2011. London, LSE: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. Available at: http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/CASEpaper153.pdf (accessed 24 November 2014). von Braun J and Gatweiler F (eds) (2014) Marginality: Addressing the Nexus of Poverty, Exclusion and Ecology. New York: Springer. Wahlert L and Fiester A (2012) Gender transports: Privileging the ‘natural’ in gender testing debates for intersex and transgender athletes. The American Journal of Bioethics. DOI: 10.1080/15265161.2012.683750. Weller S (2010) Young people's social capital: complex identities, dynamic networks. Ethnic and Racial Studies 33(5): 872–888. Whittle S, Turner L and Al-Alami M (2007) Engendered Penalties: Transgender and Transsexual People’s Experiences of Inequality and Discrimination. London: The Equalities Review. Available at: http://www.pfc.org.uk/pdf/EngenderedPenalties.pdf (accessed 10 March 2014).",
    year = "2015",
    month = "4",
    day = "22",
    doi = "10.1177/1012690215583283",
    language = "English",
    volume = "Online",
    journal = "International Review for the Sociology of Sport",
    issn = "1012-6902",

    }

    ‘People have a knack of making you feel excluded if they catch on to your difference’: Transgender experiences of exclusion in sport. / Hargie, Owen; Mitchell, David; Somerville, Ian.

    In: International Review for the Sociology of Sport., Vol. Online, 22.04.2015.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - ‘People have a knack of making you feel excluded if they catch on to your difference’: Transgender experiences of exclusion in sport.

    AU - Hargie, Owen

    AU - Mitchell, David

    AU - Somerville, Ian

    N1 - Reference text: Abrams D, Hogg M and Marques J (eds) (2005) The Social Psychology of Inclusion and Exclusion. Philadelphia: Psychology Press. Alvesson M and Skoldberg K (2009) Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research. London: Sage. Anderson E (ed) (2013) Sport, Masculinities and Sexualities. Abingdon: Routledge. Bailey R (2005) Evaluating the relationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion. Educational Review 57(1): 71–90. Barnes M (2005) Social Exclusion in Great Britain: An Empirical Investigation and Comparison with the EU. Aldershot: Ashgate. Brackenridge C, Alldred P, Jarvis A, et al. (2008) A Literature Review of Sexual Orientation in Sport: A Summary. Centre for Youth Sport and Athlete Welfare, Brunel University. Available at: https://www.sportengland.org/media/174173/so-summary-final1.pdf (accessed 10 April 2015). Burchardt T, LeGrand J and Piachaud D (2002a) Introduction. In: Hills J, LeGrand J and Piachaud D (eds) Understanding Social Exclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.1-12. Burchardt T, LeGrand J and Piachaud D (2002b) Degrees of exclusion: Developing a dynamic, multidimensional measure. In: Hills J, LeGrand J and Piachaud D (eds) Understanding Social Exclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.30–43. Buzuvis E (2011) Transgender student-athletes and sex-segregated sport: Developing policies of inclusion for intercollegiate and interscholastic athletics. Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law, 21(1). Available at: http://scholarship.shu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=sports_entertainment (accessed 13 January, 2015). Caudwell J (2014) [Transgender] young men: gendered subjectivities and the physically active body. Sport, Education and Society. DOI:10.1080/13573322.2012.672320. Caudwell J and Browne K (eds) (2013) Sexualities, Spaces and Leisure Studies. Abingdon: Routledge. Cavanagh S and Sykes H (2006) Transsexual bodies at the Olympics: The International Olympic Committee's Policy on transexual athletes at the 2004 Athens summer games. Body & Society 12(3): 75-102. Clark S and Paechter C (2007) Why can’t girls play football? Gender dynamics and the playground. Sport, Education and Society. DOI: 10.1080/13573320701464085. Coalter F (2007) A Wider Social Role for Sport. Who's Keeping the Score? Abingdon: Routledge. Collins M and Kay T (2014) Sport and Social Exclusion 2nd edition. Abingdon: Routledge. Dagkas S and Armour K (eds) (2012) Inclusion and Exclusion through Youth Sport. Abingdon: Routledge. Dionigi R (2006) Competitive sport as leisure in later life: negotiations, discourse, and aging. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 28(2): 181–196. Federico B, Falese L, Marandola D and Capelli G (2013) Socioeconomic differences in sport and physical activity among Italian adults. Journal of Sports Sciences. 10.1080/02640414.2012.736630. Effrig J, Bieschke K and Locke B (2011) Examining victimization and psychological distress in transgender college students. Journal of College Counseling 14(2): 143-157. GLAAD (2014) Media Reference Guide 9th Edition: Transgender Issues. Available at: http://www.glaad.org/sites/default/files/GLAAD%20MRG_9th.pdf (accessed 22 March 2015). Grossman AH and D’Augelli AR (2007) Transgender youth and life-threatening behaviors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 37(5): 527–537. DOI:10.1521/suli.2007.37.5.527 Halberstam J (1998) Female Masculinity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Hansson U and Depret M (2007) Equality Mainstreaming: Policy and Practice for Transgender People. Belfast, Institute for Conflict Research. Available at: http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/transgenderequality22may07.pdf (accessed 12 April, 2015). Hargie O, Somerville I and Mitchell D (2015) Social Exclusion and Sport in Northern Ireland. Jordanstown, Northern Ireland: Ulster University. Hargreaves J and Anderson E (eds) (2014) Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality. Abingdon: Routledge. Kauer K and Krane V (2013) Sexual identity and sport. In: Roper E (ed) Gender Relations in Sport. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. 53-72. Kenagy G (2005) Transgender health: Findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia. Health & Social Work 30(1): 19–26. Keogh P, Reid D and Weatherburn P (2006) Lambeth LGBT Matters: The Needs and Experiences of Lesbians, Gay Men, Bisexual and Trans Men And Women in Lambeth. Lambeth: Sigma Research. Available at: http://www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/files/report2006c.pdf (accessed 10 March, 2014). Lake R (2013) ‘They treat me like I’m scum’: Established-outsider relations in a British tennis club. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(1): 112-128. Le Blanc A, Frost D and Wight R (2015) Minority stress and stress proliferation among same-sex and other marginalized couples. Journal of Marriage and Family 77: 40–59. Levitas R (2006) The concept and measurement of social exclusion. In: Pantazis C, Gordon D and Levitas R (eds) Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain. Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 123-160. Love A (2014) Transgender exclusion and inclusion in sport. In: Hargreaves J and Anderson E (eds) Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 376-383. Lucas-Carr C and Krane V (2011) What is the T in LGBT? Supporting transgender athletes through sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist 25(4): 532-548. Lucas-Carr C and Krane V (2012) Troubling sport or troubled by sport? Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education 6(1): 22-44. Mathy RM (2002) Transgender identity and suicidality in a nonclinical sample: Sexual orientation, psychiatric history, and compulsive behaviors. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality 42(4): 89–101. Meyer IH (2003) Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin 129(5): 674–697. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674 Meyer IH and Northridge ME (eds) (2007) The Health of Sexual Minorities: Public Health Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Populations. New York: Springer. Pascoe EA and Richman LS (2009) Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin 135(4): 531-554. DOI: 10.1037/a0016059 Pierson J (2010) Tackling Social Exclusion second edition. Abingdon: Routledge. Putnam R (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster. Rankin S, Weber G, Blumenfeld W and Fraze S (2010) 2010 State of Higher Education for LGBT People. Charlotte, NC: Campus Pride. Reeser J (2005) Gender identity and sport: Is the playing field level? British Journal of Sports Medicine 39(10): 695–699. Scraton S and Flintoff A (eds) (2002) Gender and Sport: A Reader. Abingdon: Routledge. Semerjian TZ and Cohen JH (2006) ‘FTM means female to me’: transgender athletes performing gender. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal 15(2): 28-43. Silver H and Miller S (2003) Social exclusion: the European approach to social disadvantage. Indicators 2(2): 5-21. Smith M, Cuthbertson S and Gale N (2012) Out for Sport: Tackling Transphobia in Sport. Transgender Specific Companion Report. Edinburgh, Scotland: Equality Network. Available at: http://www.equality-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Transgender-specific-companion-report.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015). Spaaij R, Magee J and Jeanes R (2014) Sport and Social Exclusion in Global Society. Abingdon: Routledge. Sports Council Equality Group (2013) Transsexual People and Competitive Sport: Guidelines for National Governing Bodies of Sport. London: Sports Council Equality Group. Available at: http://www.sportni.net/sportni/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/TranssexualPeopleandCompetitiveSportGuidanceforNationalGoverningBodies.pdf (accessed 10 April 2015). Stalsberg R and Pedersen A (2010) Effects of socioeconomic status on the physical activity in adolescents: A systematic review of the evidence. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01047.x. Sullivan CF (2011) Gender verification and gender policies in elite sport: Eligibility and ‘fair play’. Journal of Sport and Social Issues. DOI: 10.1177/0193723511426293. Sykes H (2006) Transsexual and transgender policies in sport. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 15(1): 3-13. Sykes H (2011) Queer Bodies: Sexualities, Genders and Fatness in Physical Education. New York: Peter Lang. Symons C and Hemphill D (2006) Trangendering sex and sport in the Gay Games. In: Caudwell, J (ed) Sport, Sexualities and Queer/Theory. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 109-128. Symons C, Sbaraglia M, Hillier L and Mitchell A (2010) Come Out to Play: The Sports Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People in Victoria. Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living; School of Sport and Exercise Science, Victoria University, Melbourne. Available at: http://www.glhv.org.au/files/ComeOutToPlay.pdf (accessed 12 October, 2014). Tagg B (2012) Transgender netballers: ethical issues and lived realities. Sociology of Sport Journal 29(2):151-167. Travers A (2006) Queering sport: Lesbian softball leagues and the transgender challenge. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. DOI: 10.1177/1012690207078070. Travers A and Deri J (2011) Transgender inclusion and the changing face of lesbian softball leagues. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 41(3-4): 431–446. Tunstall R (2011) Social Housing and Social Exclusion 2000-2011. London, LSE: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. Available at: http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/CASEpaper153.pdf (accessed 24 November 2014). von Braun J and Gatweiler F (eds) (2014) Marginality: Addressing the Nexus of Poverty, Exclusion and Ecology. New York: Springer. Wahlert L and Fiester A (2012) Gender transports: Privileging the ‘natural’ in gender testing debates for intersex and transgender athletes. The American Journal of Bioethics. DOI: 10.1080/15265161.2012.683750. Weller S (2010) Young people's social capital: complex identities, dynamic networks. Ethnic and Racial Studies 33(5): 872–888. Whittle S, Turner L and Al-Alami M (2007) Engendered Penalties: Transgender and Transsexual People’s Experiences of Inequality and Discrimination. London: The Equalities Review. Available at: http://www.pfc.org.uk/pdf/EngenderedPenalties.pdf (accessed 10 March 2014).

    PY - 2015/4/22

    Y1 - 2015/4/22

    N2 - While there is a growing literature in the field of gender, sexuality and sport, there is a dearth of research into the lived experiences of transgender people in sport. The present study addresses this research gap by exploring and analysing the narratives of transgender people in relation to their experiences of sport and physical activity. These narratives are examined within the theoretical rubrics of social exclusion and minority stress theory. The findings from in-depth interviews with ten transgender persons are detailed. Four interconnected themes emerged from the interviewee accounts: the intimidating nature of the changing/locker room environment; the impact of alienating sports experiences at school; the fear of public space and how this drastically constrained their ability to engage in sport and physical activity; and, the overall effects of being denied the social, health and well-being aspects of sport. The findings are discussed in relation to the distinctive quality of transgender exclusion, and the related distal and proximal stressors experienced by this particular minority group.

    AB - While there is a growing literature in the field of gender, sexuality and sport, there is a dearth of research into the lived experiences of transgender people in sport. The present study addresses this research gap by exploring and analysing the narratives of transgender people in relation to their experiences of sport and physical activity. These narratives are examined within the theoretical rubrics of social exclusion and minority stress theory. The findings from in-depth interviews with ten transgender persons are detailed. Four interconnected themes emerged from the interviewee accounts: the intimidating nature of the changing/locker room environment; the impact of alienating sports experiences at school; the fear of public space and how this drastically constrained their ability to engage in sport and physical activity; and, the overall effects of being denied the social, health and well-being aspects of sport. The findings are discussed in relation to the distinctive quality of transgender exclusion, and the related distal and proximal stressors experienced by this particular minority group.

    KW - Transgender people

    KW - LGBT

    KW - sport

    KW - social exclusion

    KW - minority stress theory.

    U2 - 10.1177/1012690215583283

    DO - 10.1177/1012690215583283

    M3 - Article

    VL - Online

    JO - International Review for the Sociology of Sport

    T2 - International Review for the Sociology of Sport

    JF - International Review for the Sociology of Sport

    SN - 1012-6902

    ER -