Pathogenesis and management of traumatic brain injury (TBI): role of neuroinflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs

Sunishtha Kalra, Rohit Malik, Govind Singh, Saurabh Bhatia, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Syam Mohan, Mohammed Albratty, Ali Albarrati, Murtaza M Tambuwala

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)
77 Downloads (Pure)


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important global health concern that represents a leading cause of death and disability. It occurs due to direct impact or hit on the head caused by factors such as motor vehicles, crushes, and assaults. During the past decade, an abundance of new evidence highlighted the importance of inflammation in the secondary damage response that contributes to neurodegenerative and neurological deficits after TBI. It results in disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and initiates the release of macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes at the injury site. A growing number of researchers have discovered various signalling pathways associated with the initiation and progression of inflammation. Targeting different signalling pathways (NF-κB, JAK/STAT, MAPKs, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, GSK-3, Nrf2, RhoGTPase, TGF-β1, and NLRP3) helps in the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs in the management of TBI. Several synthetic and herbal drugs with both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential showed effective results. This review summarizes different signalling pathways, associated pathologies, inflammatory mediators, pharmacological potential, current status, and challenges with anti-inflammatory drugs. [Abstract copyright: © 2022. The Author(s).]
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1153-1166
Number of pages14
Issue number4
Early online date8 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Clinical trial
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Pathogenesis
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic - drug therapy
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases
  • Management
  • Humans
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 - therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Inflammation - complications - drug therapy
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases


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