Parametric Design and Prototyping of a Low-Power Planar Biped Robot

Koray K. Safak, Turgut Batuhan Baturalp, Selim Bozkurt

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This study proposes a design approach and the development of a low-power planar biped robot named YU-Bibot. The kinematic structure of the robot consists of six independently driven axes, and it weighs approximately 20 kg. Based on biomimetics, the robot dimensions were selected as the average anthropomorphic dimensions of the human lower extremities. The optimization of the mechanical design and actuator selection of the robot was based on the results of parametric simulations. The natural human walking gait was mimicked as a walking pattern in these simulations. As a result of the optimization, a low power-to-weight ratio of 30 W/kg was obtained. The drive system of the robot joints consists of servo-controlled brushless DC motors with reduction gears and additional bevel gears at the knee and ankle joints. The robot features spring-supported knee and ankle joints that counteract the robot’s weight and compensate for the backlash present in these joints. The robot is constrained to move only in the sagittal plane by using a lateral support structure. The robot’s feet are equipped with low-cost, force-sensitive resistor (FSR)-type sensors for monitoring ground contact and zero-moment point (ZMP) criterion. The experimental results indicate that the proposed robot mechanism can follow the posture commands accurately and demonstrate locomotion at moderate stability. The proposed parametric natural gait simulation-based design approach and the resulting biped robot design with a low power/weight ratio are the main contributions of this study.
Original languageEnglish
Article number346
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number4
Early online date5 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 5 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), project number: 106M354.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • biped robot
  • biomimetic robot
  • zero-moment point (ZMP) criterion
  • force-sensitive resistor (FSR) sensor


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