Dementia is defined as a gradual cognitive impairment that interferes with everyday tasks, and is a leading cause of dependency, disability, and mortality. According to the current scenario, millions of individuals worldwide have dementia. This review provides with an overview of dementia before moving on to its subtypes (neurodegenerative and non-neurodegenerative) and pathophysiology. It also discusses the incidence and severity of dementia, focusing on Alzheimer's disease with its different hypotheses such as Aβ cascade hypothesis, Tau hypothesis, inflammatory hypothesis, cholinergic and oxidative stress hypothesis. Alzheimer's disease is the most common type and a progressive neurodegenerative illness distinct by neuronal loss and resulting cognitive impairment, leading to dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered the most familiar neurodegenerative dementias that affect mostly older population. There are still no disease-modifying therapies available for any dementias at this time, but there are various methods for lowering the risk to dementia patients by using suitable diagnostic and evaluation methods. Thereafter, the management and treatment of primary risk elements of dementia are reviewed. Finally, the future perspectives of dementia (AD) focusing on the impact of the new treatment are discussed.
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- Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
- Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis
- Tau protein
- Alzheimer's disease