Organic Degradation Potential of Real Greywater Using TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Processes

Dheaya Alrousan, Arsalan Afkhami, Khalid Bani-Melhem, PSM Dunlop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


In keeping with the circular economy approach, reclaiming greywater (GW) is considered a sustainable approach to local reuse of wastewater and a viable option to reduce household demand for freshwater. This study investigated the mineralization of total organic carbon (TOC) in GW using TiO 2-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a custom-built stirred tank reactor. The combinations of H 2O 2, O 3, and immobilized TiO 2 under either dark or UVA irradiation conditions were systematically evaluated—namely TiO 2/dark, O 3/dark (ozonation), H 2O 2/dark (peroxidation), TiO 2/UVA (photocatalysis), O 3/UVA (Ozone photolysis), H 2O 2/UVA (photo-peroxidation), O 3/TiO 2/dark (catalytic ozonation), O 3/TiO 2/UVA (photocatalytic ozonation), H 2O 2/TiO 2/dark, H 2O 2/TiO 2/UVA, H 2O 2/O 3/dark (peroxonation), H 2O 2/O 3/UVA (photo-peroxonation), H 2O 2/O 3/TiO 2/dark (catalytic peroxonation), and H 2O 2/O 3/TiO 2/UVA (photocatalytic peroxonation). It was found that combining different treatment methods with UVA irradiation dramatically enhanced the organic mineralization efficiency. The optimum TiO 2 loading in this study was observed to be 0.96 mg/cm 2 with the highest TOC removal (54%) achieved using photocatalytic peroxonation under optimal conditions (0.96 mg TiO 2 /cm 2, 25 mg O 3 /min, and 0.7 H 2O 2 /O 3 molar ratio). In peroxonation and photo-peroxonation, the optimal H 2O 2 /O 3 molar ratio was identified to be a critical efficiency parameter maximizing the production of reactive radical species. Increasing ozone flow rate or H 2O 2 dosage was observed to cause an efficiency inhibition effect. This lab-based study demonstrates the potential for combined TiO 2-AOP treatments to significantly reduce the organic fraction of real GW, offering potential for the development of low-cost systems permitting safe GW reuse.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2811
Number of pages18
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2020


  • Advanced oxidation processes
  • Greywater
  • Ozonation
  • Peroxidation
  • Peroxonation
  • Photocatalysis
  • Photolysis
  • TiO


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