Online Covariate Shift Detection based Adaptive Brain-Computer Interface to Trigger Hand Exoskeleton Feedback for Neuro-Rehabilitation

Anirban Chowdhary, Haider Raza, Yogesh K. Meena, Ashish Dutta, Girijesh Prasad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


A major issue in electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) is the intrinsic non-stationarities in the brain waves, which may degrade the performance of the classifier, while transitioning from calibration to feedback generation phase. The non-stationary nature of the EEG data may cause its input probability distribution to vary over time, which often appear as a covariate shift. To adapt to the covariate shift, we had proposed an adaptive learning method in our previous work and tested it on offline standard datasets. This paper presents an online BCI system using previously developed covariate shift detection (CSD)-based adaptive classifier to discriminate between mental tasks and generate neurofeedback in the form of visual and exoskeleton motion. The CSD test helps prevent unnecessary retraining of the classifier. The feasibility of the developed online-BCI system was first tested on 10 healthy individuals, and then on 10 stroke patients having hand disability. A comparison of the proposed online CSD-based adaptive classifier with conventional non-adaptive classifier has shown a significantly (p≤0.01) higher classification accuracy in both the cases of healthy and patient groups. The results demonstrate that the online CSD-based adaptive BCI system is superior to the non-adaptive BCI system and it is feasible to be used for actuating hand exoskeleton for the stroke-rehabilitation applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1070-1080
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems
Issue number4
Early online date25 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - Dec 2018


  • Adaptive learning
  • Brain-computer interface
  • Covariate shift detection
  • Hand-exoskeleton
  • Neurorehabilitation.


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