Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools

Tiffany L. L. Teo, Heather M. Coleman, Stuart J. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this research was to investigate the presence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in public swimming pools. Various types of public swimming pool water were analysed, taken from freshwater indoor swimming pools, outdoor swimming pools, spa pools and seawater swimming pools. Swimming pool water samples were analysed for 30 PPCPs using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All PPCPs were below quantification limits in seawater pools. However, caffeine was detected in 12 chlorinated swimming pools at concentrations up to 1540 ng/L and ibuprofen was observed in 7 chlorinated pools at concentrations up to 83 ng/L. Caffeine and ibuprofen concentrations were below quantification limits in all fill water samples, eliminating this as their source in swimming pools. High variations in caffeine concentrations monitored throughout the day roughly reflect bather loads in swimming pools. Future monitoring of these compounds may assist in evaluating what portion of organic matter measured in swimming pools may come from human excretions.
LanguageEnglish
Pages6972-6981
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume23
Issue number7
Early online date26 Dec 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016

Fingerprint

Swimming Pools
Swimming pools
Pharmaceutical Services
Drug products
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Caffeine
Ibuprofen
Seawater
Water
PPCP
seawater
Solid Phase Extraction
Liquid chromatography
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Fresh Water
excretion
Liquid Chromatography
Isotopes
water
Biological materials

Keywords

  • Anthropogenic
  • Ibuprofen
  • Caffeine
  • Chemical contaminants
  • Surrogate indicators

Cite this

@article{fe5a86e9dbca4732a589cfa60042eed8,
title = "Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools",
abstract = "The aim of this research was to investigate the presence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in public swimming pools. Various types of public swimming pool water were analysed, taken from freshwater indoor swimming pools, outdoor swimming pools, spa pools and seawater swimming pools. Swimming pool water samples were analysed for 30 PPCPs using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All PPCPs were below quantification limits in seawater pools. However, caffeine was detected in 12 chlorinated swimming pools at concentrations up to 1540 ng/L and ibuprofen was observed in 7 chlorinated pools at concentrations up to 83 ng/L. Caffeine and ibuprofen concentrations were below quantification limits in all fill water samples, eliminating this as their source in swimming pools. High variations in caffeine concentrations monitored throughout the day roughly reflect bather loads in swimming pools. Future monitoring of these compounds may assist in evaluating what portion of organic matter measured in swimming pools may come from human excretions.",
keywords = "Anthropogenic, Ibuprofen, Caffeine, Chemical contaminants, Surrogate indicators",
author = "Teo, {Tiffany L. L.} and Coleman, {Heather M.} and Khan, {Stuart J.}",
year = "2016",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1007/s11356-015-5967-4",
language = "English",
volume = "23",
pages = "6972--6981",
journal = "Environmental Science and Pollution Research",
issn = "0944-1344",
number = "7",

}

Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools. / Teo, Tiffany L. L.; Coleman, Heather M.; Khan, Stuart J.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 23, No. 7, 04.2016, p. 6972-6981.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools

AU - Teo, Tiffany L. L.

AU - Coleman, Heather M.

AU - Khan, Stuart J.

PY - 2016/4

Y1 - 2016/4

N2 - The aim of this research was to investigate the presence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in public swimming pools. Various types of public swimming pool water were analysed, taken from freshwater indoor swimming pools, outdoor swimming pools, spa pools and seawater swimming pools. Swimming pool water samples were analysed for 30 PPCPs using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All PPCPs were below quantification limits in seawater pools. However, caffeine was detected in 12 chlorinated swimming pools at concentrations up to 1540 ng/L and ibuprofen was observed in 7 chlorinated pools at concentrations up to 83 ng/L. Caffeine and ibuprofen concentrations were below quantification limits in all fill water samples, eliminating this as their source in swimming pools. High variations in caffeine concentrations monitored throughout the day roughly reflect bather loads in swimming pools. Future monitoring of these compounds may assist in evaluating what portion of organic matter measured in swimming pools may come from human excretions.

AB - The aim of this research was to investigate the presence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in public swimming pools. Various types of public swimming pool water were analysed, taken from freshwater indoor swimming pools, outdoor swimming pools, spa pools and seawater swimming pools. Swimming pool water samples were analysed for 30 PPCPs using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All PPCPs were below quantification limits in seawater pools. However, caffeine was detected in 12 chlorinated swimming pools at concentrations up to 1540 ng/L and ibuprofen was observed in 7 chlorinated pools at concentrations up to 83 ng/L. Caffeine and ibuprofen concentrations were below quantification limits in all fill water samples, eliminating this as their source in swimming pools. High variations in caffeine concentrations monitored throughout the day roughly reflect bather loads in swimming pools. Future monitoring of these compounds may assist in evaluating what portion of organic matter measured in swimming pools may come from human excretions.

KW - Anthropogenic

KW - Ibuprofen

KW - Caffeine

KW - Chemical contaminants

KW - Surrogate indicators

U2 - 10.1007/s11356-015-5967-4

DO - 10.1007/s11356-015-5967-4

M3 - Article

VL - 23

SP - 6972

EP - 6981

JO - Environmental Science and Pollution Research

T2 - Environmental Science and Pollution Research

JF - Environmental Science and Pollution Research

SN - 0944-1344

IS - 7

ER -