Nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture in primary health care in Finland

N Hahtela, E Paavilainen, Brendan McCormack, M Helminen, Paul Slater, T Suominen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to describe nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture, especially in regard to stress levels, job satisfaction and the practice environment in primary health care.Background: Health care is facing many challenges related to its attractiveness as a place of employment and the maintenance of a sufficient workforce supply. Previous studies report increasing rates of nurse job dissatisfaction and intentions to leave their current positions both in Finland and also globally. Improving workplace culture is thus vital in meeting the challenges related to recruitment and retention.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to describe nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture. Data were collected by questionnaire from 22 units in nine primary healthcare organizations in Finland, and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: Most of the respondents indicated that they were not certain whether their workplace culture was either positive or negative. Profession, age and work shift characteristics had an effect on the respondents’ perceptions of workplace culture. Younger licensed practical and registered nurses assessed their workplace culture more positively, whereas older registered nurses and those working rotating rosters viewed workplace culture more negatively.Conclusions: The findings suggest that both unit and demographic characteristics affect workplace culture. This survey highlights that a positive workplace culture is one of the key factors in retaining and recruiting nurses, and provides an essential evidence that may be considered by other healthcare organizations.Implications for nursing and health policy: Nurse managers and healthcare leaders need to address workload management and take into account the related variables that affect a unit’s workplace culture.
LanguageEnglish
Pages470-478
JournalInternational Nursing Review
Volume62
Early online date16 Nov 2015
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Nov 2015

Fingerprint

Finland
Workplace
Primary Health Care
Nurses
Delivery of Health Care
Organizations
Nurse Administrators
Job Satisfaction
Health Policy
Workload
Nursing
Maintenance
Demography
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Job Satisfaction
  • Practice Environment
  • Primary Health Care
  • Stress
  • Workplace Culture
  • nurse recruitment and retention
  • nursing shortage

Cite this

Hahtela, N ; Paavilainen, E ; McCormack, Brendan ; Helminen, M ; Slater, Paul ; Suominen, T. / Nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture in primary health care in Finland. In: International Nursing Review. 2015 ; Vol. 62. pp. 470-478.
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note = "Reference text: Nursing Shortage Fact Sheet. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/nursing-shortage (accessed 4 June 2014) 2. Effects of hospital care environment on patient mortality and nurse outcomes L.H. Aiken. Journal of Nursing Administration, 2008 3. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States. L.H. Aiken British Medical Journal, 2012 4..Nurses' reports of working conditions and hospital quality of care in 12 countries in Europe L.H. Aiken. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2013 5. Primary care and care for older persons: Position Paper of the European Forum for Primary Care. P. Boeckxstaens, P. De Graaf. Quality in Primary Care, 2011 6. Power and empowerment in nursing. A fourth theoretical approach. C. Bradbury-Jones, S. Sambrook, F. Irvine. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2008 7. Solving nursing shortages: a common priority. J. Buchan, L. Aiken. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2008 8. Student nurses' attitudes regarding older adults: strategies for fostering improvement through academia. R.V. Cozort. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 2008 9 Nurses' intention to leave the profession: integrative review. M. Flinkman, H. Leino-Kilpi, S. Salanter{\"a}. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2010 10. Nurse turnover: a literature review. L.J. Hayes. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2006 11. Nurses' intention to leave their profession: a cross sectional observational study in 10 European countries. M.M. Heinen. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2013 12. Hospital nurses' work environment, quality of care provided and care plans S. Hinno, P. Partanen, K. Vehvil{\"a}inen-Julkunen International Nursing Review, 2011 13. Walk the talk: promoting control of nursing practice and a patient-centered culture M. Kramer Critical Care Nurse, 2009 14..Changes in hospital nurse work environment and nurse job outcomes: an analysis of panel data A. Kutney-Lee, E.S. Wu, D.M. Sloane, L.H. Aiken International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2013 15 Retaining nurses and other hospital workers: an intergenerational perspective of the work climate M. Lavoie-Tremblay Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2010 16. Job satisfaction and intention to leave: a questionnaire survey of hospital nurses in Shanghai of China C. Liu Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2011 17. Perceived occupational stress in nurses working in Ireland V.J.C. McCarthy, S. Power, B.A. Greiner Occupational Medicine, 2010 18. Magnet Hospitals Revisited: Attraction and Retention of Professional Nurses M. McClure, M.A. Poulin, M.D. Sovie, M.A. Wandelt 2006 19. Happy in their work B. McCormack, P. Slater Nursing Standard, 2009 20. Developing person-centred practice: nursing outcomes arising from changes to the care environment in residential settings for older people B. McCormack. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 2010 21. Developing person centred care: addressing contextual challenges through practice development. B. McCormack, J. Dewing, T. McCance Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 2011 22. Outcomes of intervention to improve hospital nursing work environment L. McGillis Hall, D. Doran, L. Pink Journal of Nursing Administration, 2008 23. Effective workplace culture: the attributes, enabling factors and consequences of a new conceptK. Manley, K. Sanders, S. Cardiff, J. Webster International Practice Development Journal, 2011 24. Power and empowerment in nursing: looking backward to inform the future M. Manojlovich Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 2007 25. Toimiva terveyskeskus vahvistaa perusterveydenhuoltoa. Sosiaali- ja terveysministeri{\"o}n esitteit{\"a} 2010:4 [Effective Health to Strengthen Primary Health Care. Social Affairs and the Ministry of Health Brochures]. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-00-3022-3 (accessed 30 January 2013)2010 26. Impact of nurse environment and staffing on hospital nurse and quality of care in Thailand A. Nantsupawat Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2011 27. Impact and determinants of nurse turnover: a pan-Canadian study L. O'Brien-Pallas Journal of Nursing Management, 2010 28. The relationship between nurses' stress and nurse staffing factors in a hospital setting S.R. Purcell, M. Kutash, S. Cobb Journal of Nursing Management, 2011 29. Investing in Europe's Health Workforce of Tomorrow: Scope for Innovation and Collaboration. http://www.healthworkforce4europe.eu/downloads/Report_PD_Leuven_FINAL.pdf (accessed 30 March 2014) W. Sermeus, L. Bruyneel 2010 30 The Person-Centred Nursing Index. P. Slater, B. McCormack. 2006 31. The development and pilot testing of an instrument to measure nurses' working environment: the nursing context index. P. Slater, B. McCormack, B. Bunting. Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing, 2009 32. Culturally conscious organizations: a conceptual framework P.M. Smith. Libraries and the Academy, 2008 33. Nurse staffing and patient, nurse and financial outcomes L. Unruh. American Journal of Nursing, 2008 34. Impacts of unit-level nurse practice environment, workload and burnout on nurse-reported outcomes in psychiatric hospitals: a multilevel modelling approach P. Van Bogaert International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2013 35. Effective strategies for nurse retention in acute hospitals: a mixed method study K. Van den Heede 36. Nurses and Midwives: A Force for Health. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/114157/E93980.pdf (accessed 30 March 2014) 2009 37. Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html (accessed 30 January 2013)",
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Hahtela, N, Paavilainen, E, McCormack, B, Helminen, M, Slater, P & Suominen, T 2015, 'Nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture in primary health care in Finland', International Nursing Review, vol. 62, pp. 470-478. https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12207

Nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture in primary health care in Finland. / Hahtela, N; Paavilainen, E; McCormack, Brendan; Helminen, M; Slater, Paul; Suominen, T.

In: International Nursing Review, Vol. 62, 16.11.2015, p. 470-478.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture in primary health care in Finland

AU - Hahtela, N

AU - Paavilainen, E

AU - McCormack, Brendan

AU - Helminen, M

AU - Slater, Paul

AU - Suominen, T

N1 - Reference text: Nursing Shortage Fact Sheet. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/nursing-shortage (accessed 4 June 2014) 2. Effects of hospital care environment on patient mortality and nurse outcomes L.H. Aiken. Journal of Nursing Administration, 2008 3. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States. L.H. Aiken British Medical Journal, 2012 4..Nurses' reports of working conditions and hospital quality of care in 12 countries in Europe L.H. Aiken. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2013 5. Primary care and care for older persons: Position Paper of the European Forum for Primary Care. P. Boeckxstaens, P. De Graaf. Quality in Primary Care, 2011 6. Power and empowerment in nursing. A fourth theoretical approach. C. Bradbury-Jones, S. Sambrook, F. Irvine. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2008 7. Solving nursing shortages: a common priority. J. Buchan, L. Aiken. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2008 8. Student nurses' attitudes regarding older adults: strategies for fostering improvement through academia. R.V. Cozort. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 2008 9 Nurses' intention to leave the profession: integrative review. M. Flinkman, H. Leino-Kilpi, S. Salanterä. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2010 10. Nurse turnover: a literature review. L.J. Hayes. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2006 11. Nurses' intention to leave their profession: a cross sectional observational study in 10 European countries. M.M. Heinen. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2013 12. Hospital nurses' work environment, quality of care provided and care plans S. Hinno, P. Partanen, K. Vehviläinen-Julkunen International Nursing Review, 2011 13. Walk the talk: promoting control of nursing practice and a patient-centered culture M. Kramer Critical Care Nurse, 2009 14..Changes in hospital nurse work environment and nurse job outcomes: an analysis of panel data A. Kutney-Lee, E.S. Wu, D.M. Sloane, L.H. Aiken International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2013 15 Retaining nurses and other hospital workers: an intergenerational perspective of the work climate M. Lavoie-Tremblay Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2010 16. Job satisfaction and intention to leave: a questionnaire survey of hospital nurses in Shanghai of China C. Liu Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2011 17. Perceived occupational stress in nurses working in Ireland V.J.C. McCarthy, S. Power, B.A. Greiner Occupational Medicine, 2010 18. Magnet Hospitals Revisited: Attraction and Retention of Professional Nurses M. McClure, M.A. Poulin, M.D. Sovie, M.A. Wandelt 2006 19. Happy in their work B. McCormack, P. Slater Nursing Standard, 2009 20. Developing person-centred practice: nursing outcomes arising from changes to the care environment in residential settings for older people B. McCormack. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 2010 21. Developing person centred care: addressing contextual challenges through practice development. B. McCormack, J. Dewing, T. McCance Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 2011 22. Outcomes of intervention to improve hospital nursing work environment L. McGillis Hall, D. Doran, L. Pink Journal of Nursing Administration, 2008 23. Effective workplace culture: the attributes, enabling factors and consequences of a new conceptK. Manley, K. Sanders, S. Cardiff, J. Webster International Practice Development Journal, 2011 24. Power and empowerment in nursing: looking backward to inform the future M. Manojlovich Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 2007 25. Toimiva terveyskeskus vahvistaa perusterveydenhuoltoa. Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriön esitteitä 2010:4 [Effective Health to Strengthen Primary Health Care. Social Affairs and the Ministry of Health Brochures]. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-00-3022-3 (accessed 30 January 2013)2010 26. Impact of nurse environment and staffing on hospital nurse and quality of care in Thailand A. Nantsupawat Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2011 27. Impact and determinants of nurse turnover: a pan-Canadian study L. O'Brien-Pallas Journal of Nursing Management, 2010 28. The relationship between nurses' stress and nurse staffing factors in a hospital setting S.R. Purcell, M. Kutash, S. Cobb Journal of Nursing Management, 2011 29. Investing in Europe's Health Workforce of Tomorrow: Scope for Innovation and Collaboration. http://www.healthworkforce4europe.eu/downloads/Report_PD_Leuven_FINAL.pdf (accessed 30 March 2014) W. Sermeus, L. Bruyneel 2010 30 The Person-Centred Nursing Index. P. Slater, B. McCormack. 2006 31. The development and pilot testing of an instrument to measure nurses' working environment: the nursing context index. P. Slater, B. McCormack, B. Bunting. Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing, 2009 32. Culturally conscious organizations: a conceptual framework P.M. Smith. Libraries and the Academy, 2008 33. Nurse staffing and patient, nurse and financial outcomes L. Unruh. American Journal of Nursing, 2008 34. Impacts of unit-level nurse practice environment, workload and burnout on nurse-reported outcomes in psychiatric hospitals: a multilevel modelling approach P. Van Bogaert International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2013 35. Effective strategies for nurse retention in acute hospitals: a mixed method study K. Van den Heede 36. Nurses and Midwives: A Force for Health. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/114157/E93980.pdf (accessed 30 March 2014) 2009 37. Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html (accessed 30 January 2013)

PY - 2015/11/16

Y1 - 2015/11/16

N2 - Aim: This study aimed to describe nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture, especially in regard to stress levels, job satisfaction and the practice environment in primary health care.Background: Health care is facing many challenges related to its attractiveness as a place of employment and the maintenance of a sufficient workforce supply. Previous studies report increasing rates of nurse job dissatisfaction and intentions to leave their current positions both in Finland and also globally. Improving workplace culture is thus vital in meeting the challenges related to recruitment and retention.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to describe nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture. Data were collected by questionnaire from 22 units in nine primary healthcare organizations in Finland, and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: Most of the respondents indicated that they were not certain whether their workplace culture was either positive or negative. Profession, age and work shift characteristics had an effect on the respondents’ perceptions of workplace culture. Younger licensed practical and registered nurses assessed their workplace culture more positively, whereas older registered nurses and those working rotating rosters viewed workplace culture more negatively.Conclusions: The findings suggest that both unit and demographic characteristics affect workplace culture. This survey highlights that a positive workplace culture is one of the key factors in retaining and recruiting nurses, and provides an essential evidence that may be considered by other healthcare organizations.Implications for nursing and health policy: Nurse managers and healthcare leaders need to address workload management and take into account the related variables that affect a unit’s workplace culture.

AB - Aim: This study aimed to describe nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture, especially in regard to stress levels, job satisfaction and the practice environment in primary health care.Background: Health care is facing many challenges related to its attractiveness as a place of employment and the maintenance of a sufficient workforce supply. Previous studies report increasing rates of nurse job dissatisfaction and intentions to leave their current positions both in Finland and also globally. Improving workplace culture is thus vital in meeting the challenges related to recruitment and retention.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to describe nurses’ perceptions of workplace culture. Data were collected by questionnaire from 22 units in nine primary healthcare organizations in Finland, and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: Most of the respondents indicated that they were not certain whether their workplace culture was either positive or negative. Profession, age and work shift characteristics had an effect on the respondents’ perceptions of workplace culture. Younger licensed practical and registered nurses assessed their workplace culture more positively, whereas older registered nurses and those working rotating rosters viewed workplace culture more negatively.Conclusions: The findings suggest that both unit and demographic characteristics affect workplace culture. This survey highlights that a positive workplace culture is one of the key factors in retaining and recruiting nurses, and provides an essential evidence that may be considered by other healthcare organizations.Implications for nursing and health policy: Nurse managers and healthcare leaders need to address workload management and take into account the related variables that affect a unit’s workplace culture.

KW - Job Satisfaction

KW - Practice Environment

KW - Primary Health Care

KW - Stress

KW - Workplace Culture

KW - nurse recruitment and retention

KW - nursing shortage

U2 - 10.1111/inr.12207

DO - 10.1111/inr.12207

M3 - Article

VL - 62

SP - 470

EP - 478

JO - International Nursing Review

T2 - International Nursing Review

JF - International Nursing Review

SN - 0020-8132

ER -