Numerical Investigation and Feasibility Study on MXene/Water Nanofluid Based Photovoltaic/thermal System

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Nanofluid is increasingly adopted in solar collectors as they play a significant role in enhancing the heat transfer process. In this study, a 3D numerical simulation of a nanofluid-based photovoltaic/thermal (N-PV/T) system with MXene nanofluid as heat transfer fluid, was conducted using the finite volume method (FVM). A feasibility analysis was performed on the proposed N-PV/T system. Enviro-economic analysis was also performed from an energy and exergy perspective. The numerical simulation model was validated with experimental and numerical data in the literature and has a minimal error of about 2.75% and 8.9%, respectively. Results indicated that MXene nanofluid of 0.2wt% achieved a percentage enhancement of 3.5% and 17% electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency, respectively, over water. The 0.2wt% MXene nanofluid achieved the highest heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of 261.95 Wm−2K−1 at a mass flow rate of 90 kgh−1. Also, 0.2wt% nanofluid produced a significant HTC improvement of about 21.42% over water at a flow rate of 40 kgh−1. The study showed that MXene nanofluid could effectively reduce the PV surface temperature by 10% compared to water. System size optimization study proved that a 4.5 -14.5% reduction in the size of PV/T could be achieved with MXene nanofluid. Enviroeconomic analysis showed that the 0.2wt% nanofluid generated the least emission rate and emission cost according to energy (0.42 kgCO2/day, and 0.028224 $/day) and exergy-based analysis (0.48 kgCO2/day, and 0.032 $/day).
Original languageEnglish
Article number100010
JournalCleaner Energy Systems
Early online date15 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 20 Jun 2022


  • MXene nanofluid
  • Nanofluid based PV/T
  • CFD
  • Enviro-economic analysis


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