Novel artificial tricalcium phosphate and magnesium composite graft facilitates angiogenesis in bone healing

Yuan-Hsin Tsai, Chun-Chieh Tseng, Yun-Chan Lin, Howida M Nail, Kuan-Yu Chiu, Yen-Hao Chang, Ming-Wei Chang, Feng-Huei Lin, Hui-Min David Wang

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Abstract

Bone grafting is the standard treatment for critical bone defects, but autologous grafts have limitations like donor site morbidity and limited availability, while commercial artificial grafts may have poor integration with surrounding bone tissue, leading to delayed healing. Magnesium deficiency negatively impacts angiogenesis and bone repair. Therefore, incorporating magnesium into a synthetic biomaterial could provide an excellent bone substitute. This study aims to evaluate the morphological, mechanical, and biological properties of a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sponge composed of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), which could serve as an excellent bone substitute by incorporating magnesium. This study aims to develop biomedical materials composed mainly of TTCP and MCPM powder, magnesium powder, and collagen. The materials were prepared using a wet-stirred mill and freeze-dryer methods. The particle size, composition, and microstructure of the materials were investigated. Finally, the biological properties of these materials, including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for biocompatibility, effects on bone cell differentiation by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity assay, and endothelial cell tube formation assay for angiogenesis, were evaluated as well. The data showed that the sub-micron CPC powder, composed of TTCP/MCPM in a 3.5:1 ratio, had a setting time shorter than 15 minutes and a compressive strength of 4.39±0.96 MPa. This reveals that the sub-micron CPC powder had an adequate setting time and mechanical strength. We found that the sub-micron CPC sponge containing magnesium had better biocompatibility, including increased proliferation and osteogenic induction effects without cytotoxicity. The CPC sponge containing magnesium also promoted angiogenesis. In summary, we introduced a novel CPC sponge, which had a similar property to human bone promoted the biological functions of bone cells, and could serve as a promising material used in bone regeneration for critical bone defects. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
Original languageEnglish
Article number100750
Pages (from-to)1-42
Number of pages43
JournalBiomedical journal
Early online date3 Jun 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished online - 3 Jun 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Data Access Statement

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Keywords

  • Magnesium
  • Tricalcium Phosphate
  • Bone graft
  • Critical bone defect

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