The current Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) shows similar pathology to MERS and SARS-CoV, with a current estimated fatality rate of 1.4%. Open reading frame 10 (ORF10) is a unique SARS-CoV-2 accessory protein, which contains eleven cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes each of nine amino acids in length. Twenty-two unique SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants have been identified based on missense mutations found in sequence databases. Some of these mutations are predicted to decrease the stability of ORF10 in silico physicochemical and structural comparative analyses were carried out on SARS-CoV-2 and Pangolin-CoV ORF10 proteins, which share 97.37% amino acid (aa) homology. Though there is a high degree of ORF10 protein similarity of SARS-CoV-2 and Pangolin-CoV, there are differences of these two ORF10 proteins related to their sub-structure (loop/coil region), solubility, antigenicity and shift from strand to coil at aa position 26 (tyrosine). SARS-CoV-2 ORF10, which is apparently expressed in vivo since reactive T cell clones are found in convalescent patients should be monitored for changes which could correlate with the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.
- Intrinsic disorder