Northern Ireland Policing Board: Confidence in Policing Research‘The key drivers of public confidence in NI’

Jonny Byrne, John Topping, Richard Martin

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

Abstract

In January 2014, the Northern Ireland Policing Board (NIPB) commissioned the University of Ulster to conduct research into public confidence in policing to help inform the work of the Board and its oversight of police service delivery. More specifically, the research team were tasked with exploring ‘the key drivers of confidence in Northern Ireland’. To date, the subject of ‘confidence in policing’ within a Northern Ireland context has been relatively under researched, both in academic and policy terms. Thus, the present research is the first empirical research to be produced in the country to empirically assess confidence in policing from a cross section of society – including the key dynamics and drivers that underpin police confidence at a community level.The report begins with a comprehensive review of academic literature, policy documents and contemporary events related to confidence in policing. The research then provides an overview of the methodology used to undertake the research, with the remainder of the report comprised of the findings from the survey. The report concludes with an overview of the central findings along with a series of recommendations.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages61
Publication statusPublished - 6 Nov 2014

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confidence
driver
police
empirical research
event
methodology
community

Keywords

  • Policing
  • northern ireland
  • confidence
  • police
  • psni

Cite this

@book{9703676007254e03934226a73d474196,
title = "Northern Ireland Policing Board: Confidence in Policing Research‘The key drivers of public confidence in NI’",
abstract = "In January 2014, the Northern Ireland Policing Board (NIPB) commissioned the University of Ulster to conduct research into public confidence in policing to help inform the work of the Board and its oversight of police service delivery. More specifically, the research team were tasked with exploring ‘the key drivers of confidence in Northern Ireland’. To date, the subject of ‘confidence in policing’ within a Northern Ireland context has been relatively under researched, both in academic and policy terms. Thus, the present research is the first empirical research to be produced in the country to empirically assess confidence in policing from a cross section of society – including the key dynamics and drivers that underpin police confidence at a community level.The report begins with a comprehensive review of academic literature, policy documents and contemporary events related to confidence in policing. The research then provides an overview of the methodology used to undertake the research, with the remainder of the report comprised of the findings from the survey. The report concludes with an overview of the central findings along with a series of recommendations.",
keywords = "Policing, northern ireland, confidence, police, psni",
author = "Jonny Byrne and John Topping and Richard Martin",
note = "Reference text: AlaninBelfast (2013) ‘Interview with Matt Baggott: His View on PSNI Transformation, Confidence in Policing, Over-regulation, Vocation and Faith’, Slugger O’Toole, available at: http://sluggerotoole.com/2013/04/22/interview-with-matt-baggott-his-view-on-psni- transformation-confidence-in-policing-over-regulation-vocation-faith/ Baumeister, R. et al. (2001) ‘Bad is stronger than good’, Review of General Psychology 5, 323-370 Bayley, D. (2002) ‘Policing hate: What can be done?’ Policing and Society 12(2), 83- 91 Beetham, D. (1991) The Legitimacy of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan BBC News (2013a) ‘Gun attack on PSNI officers 'lured' to bogus burglary’, 16th May available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-22559541 BBC News (2013b) ‘Union Flag Dispute: Baggott Defends PSNI Impartiality’, 5th March available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-21669369 BBC News (2014) ‘Peter Robinson Stands by Comments on Policing’ 7th March available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-21707715 BBC Spotlight (2013) Policing the Peace Television: BBC One, 5th June available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b02280wc Bottoms, A. and Tankebe, J. (2012) ‘Beyond Procedural Justice: A Dialogic Approach to Legitimacy in Criminal Justice’, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 102(1), 119-170 Bourdieu, P. (1993) The Field of Cultural Production. Cambridge: Polity Press Bradford, B. (2011) ‘Convergence, Not Divergence? Trends and Trajectories in Public Contact and Confidence in the Police’, British Journal of Criminology 51, 179- 200 Bradford, B. (2012) 'Policing and Social Identity: Procedural Justice, Inclusion and Cooperation Between Police and Public' Policing and Society 24, 1- 22 Bradford, B. et al. (2009a) ‘Using Research to Inform Policy: The Role of Public Attitude Surveys in Understanding Public Confidence and Police Contact’, Policing 3(2), 139-148 54 Bradford, B. et al. (2009b) 'Contact and Confidence: Revisiting the Impact of Public Encounters with the Police', Policing and Society 19(1), 20-46 Bradford, B. and Jackson, J. (2009) ‘Public Trust in Criminal Justice: A Review of the Research Literature in the United States’, in A. Jokinen et al. (eds.) Review of Need: Indicators of Public Confidence in Criminal Justice for Policy Assessment. Bristol: Policy Press Bradford B and Jackson J (2013) ‘Public Trust and Police Legitimacy in Great Britain: Short Term Effects and Long-term Processes’, available at: www.researchgate.net/publication/...police/.../d912f509a198ce69d3.pdf Bradford, B. and Myhill, A (2014 forthcoming) ‘Triggers of Change to Public Confidence in the Police and Criminal Justice System: Findings from the Crime Survey for England and Wales Panel Experiment’, Criminology and Criminal Justice Bradford, B. et al. (2008) ‘Trust and Confidence in Criminal Justice: A Review of the British Research Literature’, in A. Jokinen et al. (eds.) Review of Need: Indicators of Public Confidence in Criminal Justice for Policy Assessment. Bristol: Policy Press Bradford, B. et al. (2012) ‘Police Futures and Legitimacy: Redefining ‘Good Policing’, Invited position paper for the Lord Stevens’ Independent Commission into the Future of Policing in England and Wales Bradford, B. et al. (2013) ‘What price fairness when security is at stake? Police legitimacy in South Africa’ Regulation and Governance, DOI: DOI: 10.1111/rego.12012 Bradford, B. et al. (2014) ‘Police Legitimacy in Action: Lessons for Theory and Practice’, in M. Reisig and R. Kane (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing. Oxford: Oxford University Press Braithwaite, V. (2003) ‘Dancing with Tax Authorities: Motivaitonal Postures and Non-Compliant Actions’, in V Braithwaite (ed.) Taxing Democracy. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Brewer, J. (2001) ‘Review Essay: The Paradox of Northern Ireland’, Sociology 35(3), 779-783 Brogden, M. (2001) ‘The Patten Report: A Unitary Solution to a Multi-Dimensional Problem?’, Policing and Society 11, 273-295 Brunson, R. (2007) ‘”Police don’t like black people”: African-American Young Peoples’ Accumulated Police Experiences’, Criminology and Public Policy 5(1), 71- 102 Brunson, R. and Miller, J. (2006) ‘Young Black Men and Urban Policing in the United States’, British Journal of Criminology 46, 613-640 55 Brunson. , and Weitzer, R. (2011) ‘Negotiating Unwelcome Police Encounters: The Intergenerational Transmission of Conduct Norms’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 40(4), 425-456 Byrne, J. et al. (2005) Young People’s Attitudes and Experiences of Policing, Violence and Community Safety in North Belfast. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research) Byrne, J. and Jarman, N. (2011) ‘Ten Years After Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland’, Youth and Society 43(2), 433-452 Byrne, J. and Monaghan, L. (2008) ‘Policing Loyalist and Republican Communities: Understanding Key Issues for Local Communities and the PSNI’. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research Byrne, J. and Topping, J. (2012a) Community Safety: A Decade of Development, Delivery, Challenge and Change in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Belfast Conflict Resolution Consortium Byrne J and Topping J (2012b) ‘Getting to the heart of the matter will require tenacity’ The Belfast Telegraph, 2nd May 2012 Byrne, J. et al. (2013) ‘Community Perspectives on Public Order Policing in Northern Ireland’. Unpublished research report for Police Service of Northern Ireland Committee on the Administration of Justice (2009) ‘Policing with the Community? Patten’s ‘New Beginning’ 10 Years On’ Conference, Belfast, Radisson Hotel Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) (2014) ‘Crime in England and Wales’. London: Home Office Dai, M. et al. (2011) ‘Procedural Justice During Police-citizen Encounters: The Effects of Process-based Policing on Citizen Compliance and Demeanor’, Journal of Criminal Justice 39, 159-168 Department of Justice Northern Ireland (DOJNI) (2014) ‘Perceptions of Policing, Justice and Anti-Social Behaviour: Quarterly Update to September 2013’. Befast: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency Ellison, G. (2000) ‘Reflecting All Shades of Opinion: Public Attitudinal Surveys and the Construction of Police Legitimacy in Northern Ireland’, British Journal of Criminology 40, 88-111 Ellison, G. (2007) ‘A Blueprint for Democratic Policing Anywhere in the World? : Police Reform, Political Transition, and Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland’, Police Quarterly 10(3), 243-269 Ellison, G. (2010) ‘Police- Community Relations in Northern Ireland in the Post- Patten Era: Towards and Ecological Analysis’, in J. Doyle (ed.) Policing the Narrow Ground: Lessons from the Transformation of Policing in Northern Ireland. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy 56 Ellison, G. and Mulcahy, A. (2001) ‘Policing and Social Conflict in Northern Ireland’, Policing and Society 11, 243- 258 Ellison, G., and O’Rawe M. (2010) ‘Security Governance in Transition: The Compartmentalizing, Crowding Out and Corralling of Policing and Security in Northern Ireland’, Theoretical Criminology 14(1), 31-57 Ellison, G. et al. (2012a) ‘Assessing the Determinants of Public Confidence in the Police: A Case Study of a Post-conflict Community in Northern Ireland’, Criminology and Criminal Justice 13(5), 552-576 Ellison, G. et al. (2012b) ‘Responsible Participation, Community Engagement and Policing in Transitional Societies: Lessons from a Local Crime Survey in Northern Ireland’, The Howard Journal 51(5), 488-502 An Garda Siochana (2008) ‘Garda Public Attitudes Survey’, Garda Research Unit Gau, J. and Brunson, R (2010) ‘Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner-City Young Men’s Perceptions of Police Legitimacy’, Justice Quarterly 27(2), 255-279 Gillespie, J. (2013) Speech to the British Irish Parliamentary Assembly, 22nd October 2013 Goldsmith,. A (2005) ‘Police Reform and the Problem of Trust’ Theoretical Criminology 9(4), 443-470 Gormley-Heenan, C. et al (2013) ‘The Berlin walls of Belfast’ British Politics, 8(3), 357-382 Hamill, H (2011) The Hoods: Crime and Punishment in Belfast. Oxford: Princeton University Press Hays, R. (2012) ‘Policing in Northern Ireland: Community Control, Community Policing, and the Search for Legitimacy’, Urban Affairs Review 49(4), 557-592 Hillyard, P. (2006) ‘REVIEWS - Policing Northern Ireland: Conflict, Legitimacy and Reform’ British Journal of Criminology, 46, 50-51 Hillyard, P. and Tomlinson, M. (2000) ‘Patterns of Policing and Policing Patten’ Journal of Law and Society, 27(3), 394-415 Huq, A. et al. (2011) ‘Why Does the Public Cooperate with Law Enforcement? The Influence of the Purposes and Targets of policing’, Psychology, Public Policy and Law 17(3), 419-450 Independent Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland (ICP) (1999) A New Beginning: Policing in Northern Ireland - The Report of the Independent Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland [Patten Report]. Belfast: Independent Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland 57 Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2009) ‘Crime, Policing and Social Order: On the Expressive Nature of Public Confidence in Policing’, British Journal of Sociology 60(3), 493-521 Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. (2010) ‘What is Trust and Confidence in the Police?’, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 4(3), 241-248 Jackson, J. and Sunshine, J. (2007) ‘Public Confidence in Policing: A Neo- Durkheimian Perspective’, British Journal of Criminology 47, 214-233 Jackson, J. et al. (2012) 'Why Do People Comply with the Law? Legitimacy and the Influence of Legal Institutions', The British Journal of Criminology 52, 1051-1071 Jonathan-Zamir, T. and Weisburd, D. (2013) ‘The Effects of Security Threats on Antecedents of Police Legitimacy: Findings from a Quasi-Experiment in Israel’, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 50(1), 3-32 Lawther, C. (2011) ‘Unionism, Truth Recovery and the Fearful Past’, Irish Political Studies 26(3), 361-382 Lind, E. and Tyler, T. (1988) The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice (New York: Plenum) Loader, I. (1997) Policing and the Social: Questions of Symbolic Power’, British Journal of Sociology, 1-18 Loader, I. (2006) ‘Policing, Recognition and Belonging’, The Annals of the American Academy 605, 201-221 Loader, I. and Mulcahy, A. (2003) Policing and the Condition of England: Memory, Politics and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press Loader, I. and Walker, N. (2001) ‘Policing as a Public Good: Reconstituting the Connections between Policing and the State’ Theoretical Criminology 5(1), 9-35 Mazerolle, M. et al. (2013) ‘Shaping Citizen Perceptions of Police Legitimacy: A Randomized Field Trial of Procedural Justice’, Criminology 51(1), 33-63 McAlister, S. et al (2009) Childhood in Transition: Experiencing Marginalization and Conflict in Northern Ireland. Belfast: School of Law, Queen’s University Belfast Martin, R. (2013) Police Legitimacy and Northern Ireland’s Difficult Communities: Does the Language of Procedural Justice Translate. MSc. Dissertation, Social Sciences Library, University of Oxford Mulcahy, A. (2006) Policing in Northern Ireland: Conflict, Legitimacy and Reform Collumpton: Willan Mulcahy, A. (2008) ‘Community Policing in Contested Settings: The Patten Report and Police Reform in Northern Ireland’, in T. Williamson (2008) (ed.) The Handbook 58 of Knowledge-Based Policing: Current Conceptions and Future Directions. Sussex: John Wiley and Sons ltd Mulcahy, A. and Ellison, G. (2001) ‘The Language of Policing and the Struggle for Legitimacy in Northern Ireland’, Policing and Society 11, 383- 404 Murphy, K. et al. (2009) ‘Nurturing Regulatory Compliance: Is Procedural Justice Effective when People Question the Legitimacy of the Law?’, Regulation & Governance 3, 1–26 Murphy, K. and Cherney, A. 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(2003) ‘Transitional Policing Arrangements in Northern Ireland: The Can’t and the Won’t of the Change Dialectic’ Fordham International Law Journal 26(4), 1015-73 Police Federation of Northern Ireland (PFNI) (2013) ‘The Royal Ulster Constabulary’, available at: http://www.royalulsterconstabulary.org/memorial.htm Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) (2011a) What Do You Want Most From Your Police Service? available at: http://www.psni.police.uk/psni_commitments_mailer.pdf] Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) (2011b) Policing with the Community 2020 Strategy available at: http://www.psni.police.uk/pwc_-_2020_v2.pdf] 59 Raz, J. (2009) Between Authority and Interpretation: On the Theory of Law and Practical Application. New York: OUP Sampson, R. (2009) ‘Disparity and Diversity in the Contemporary City: Social (Dis)Order Revisited’, British Journal of Sociology 60, 1-31 Scott, C. et al. (2011) ‘Keeping the Peace: Social Identity, Procedural Justice and the Policing of Football Crowds’, British Journal of Criminology 52(2), 381-399 Skogan, W. (2006) ‘Asymmetry in the Impact of Encounters with the Police’, Policing and Society 16(2), 99-126 Sindall, K. et al. (2012) ‘Public Confidence in the Police: A Time-Series Analysis’, British Journal of Criminology 52(4), 744-764 Smith, D. (2007) ‘The Foundations of Legitimacy’, in T. Tyler (ed.) Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: International Perspectives. New York: Russell Sage Stanko, E.A. et al (2012) 'A Golden Thread, A Presence Amongst Uniforms, and a Good Deal of Data: Studying Public Confidence in the London Metropolitan Police' Policing and Society 22 Sunshine, J. and Tyler, T. (2003a) ‘The Role of Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Shaping Public Support for Policing’, Law and Society Review 37(3), 513- 546 Sunshine, J. and Tyler, T. (2003b) ‘Moral Solidarity, Identification with the Community, and the Importance of Procedural Justice: The Police as Prototypical Representatives of a Group’s Moral Values’, Social Psychology Quarterly 66(2), 153- 165 Tankebe, J. (2009a) ‘Policing, Procedural Fairness and Public Behaviour: A Review and Critique’, International Journal of Police Science and Management 11(1), 8-19 Tankebe, J. (2009b) ‘Public cooperation with the police in Ghana: Does Procedural Fairness Matter?’, Criminology 47(4), 1265- 1293 Tankebe, J. (2013) ‘Viewing Things Differently: The Dimensions of Public Perceptions of Police Legitimacy’, Criminology 51(1), 103- 135 Taylor, P. (2013) ‘The New Dissidents’, BBC Radio 4, 21st May Topping, J. (2008a) ‘Community Policing in Northern Ireland: A Resistance Narrative’, Policing and Society 18(4), 377-396 Topping, J. 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Philadelphia: Psychology Press Tyler, T. and Blader, S. (2003) ‘The Group Engagement Model: Procedural Justice, Social Identity, and Cooperative Behavior’, Personality and Social Psychology Review 7(4), 349-361 Tyler, T. and Fagan, J. (2008) ‘Why Do People Cooperate with the Police?’, Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 6, 231-275 Tyler, T. and Huo, J. (2002) Trust in the Law: Encouraging Public Cooperation with the Police and Courts. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Tyler, T. and Jackson, J. (2013) ‘Future Challenges in the Study of Legitimacy and Criminal Justice’, in J. Tankebe and A. Liebling (eds.) Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: An International Exploration. Oxford: Oxford University Press Tyler, T. and Lind, E. (1992) ‘A Relational Model of Authority in Groups’, in M. Zanna (ed.) Advances in Experimental Psychology. New York: Academic Press Tyler, T. and Wakslak, C. (2004) ‘Profiling and Police Legitimact: Procedural Justice, Attributions of motive, and acceptance of police authority’, Criminology 42(2), 253- 281 Weitzer, R. and Tuch, G. (2006) Race and Policing in America: Conflict and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press Wilson, J. and Stapleton, K. (2007) ‘The Discourse of Resistance: Social Change and Policing in Northern Ireland’, Language and Society 36, 393-425 61",
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Northern Ireland Policing Board: Confidence in Policing Research‘The key drivers of public confidence in NI’. / Byrne, Jonny; Topping, John; Martin, Richard.

2014. 61 p.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

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T1 - Northern Ireland Policing Board: Confidence in Policing Research‘The key drivers of public confidence in NI’

AU - Byrne, Jonny

AU - Topping, John

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N1 - Reference text: AlaninBelfast (2013) ‘Interview with Matt Baggott: His View on PSNI Transformation, Confidence in Policing, Over-regulation, Vocation and Faith’, Slugger O’Toole, available at: http://sluggerotoole.com/2013/04/22/interview-with-matt-baggott-his-view-on-psni- transformation-confidence-in-policing-over-regulation-vocation-faith/ Baumeister, R. et al. (2001) ‘Bad is stronger than good’, Review of General Psychology 5, 323-370 Bayley, D. (2002) ‘Policing hate: What can be done?’ Policing and Society 12(2), 83- 91 Beetham, D. (1991) The Legitimacy of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan BBC News (2013a) ‘Gun attack on PSNI officers 'lured' to bogus burglary’, 16th May available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-22559541 BBC News (2013b) ‘Union Flag Dispute: Baggott Defends PSNI Impartiality’, 5th March available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-21669369 BBC News (2014) ‘Peter Robinson Stands by Comments on Policing’ 7th March available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-21707715 BBC Spotlight (2013) Policing the Peace Television: BBC One, 5th June available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b02280wc Bottoms, A. and Tankebe, J. (2012) ‘Beyond Procedural Justice: A Dialogic Approach to Legitimacy in Criminal Justice’, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 102(1), 119-170 Bourdieu, P. (1993) The Field of Cultural Production. Cambridge: Polity Press Bradford, B. (2011) ‘Convergence, Not Divergence? Trends and Trajectories in Public Contact and Confidence in the Police’, British Journal of Criminology 51, 179- 200 Bradford, B. (2012) 'Policing and Social Identity: Procedural Justice, Inclusion and Cooperation Between Police and Public' Policing and Society 24, 1- 22 Bradford, B. et al. (2009a) ‘Using Research to Inform Policy: The Role of Public Attitude Surveys in Understanding Public Confidence and Police Contact’, Policing 3(2), 139-148 54 Bradford, B. et al. (2009b) 'Contact and Confidence: Revisiting the Impact of Public Encounters with the Police', Policing and Society 19(1), 20-46 Bradford, B. and Jackson, J. (2009) ‘Public Trust in Criminal Justice: A Review of the Research Literature in the United States’, in A. Jokinen et al. (eds.) Review of Need: Indicators of Public Confidence in Criminal Justice for Policy Assessment. Bristol: Policy Press Bradford B and Jackson J (2013) ‘Public Trust and Police Legitimacy in Great Britain: Short Term Effects and Long-term Processes’, available at: www.researchgate.net/publication/...police/.../d912f509a198ce69d3.pdf Bradford, B. and Myhill, A (2014 forthcoming) ‘Triggers of Change to Public Confidence in the Police and Criminal Justice System: Findings from the Crime Survey for England and Wales Panel Experiment’, Criminology and Criminal Justice Bradford, B. et al. (2008) ‘Trust and Confidence in Criminal Justice: A Review of the British Research Literature’, in A. Jokinen et al. (eds.) Review of Need: Indicators of Public Confidence in Criminal Justice for Policy Assessment. Bristol: Policy Press Bradford, B. et al. (2012) ‘Police Futures and Legitimacy: Redefining ‘Good Policing’, Invited position paper for the Lord Stevens’ Independent Commission into the Future of Policing in England and Wales Bradford, B. et al. (2013) ‘What price fairness when security is at stake? Police legitimacy in South Africa’ Regulation and Governance, DOI: DOI: 10.1111/rego.12012 Bradford, B. et al. (2014) ‘Police Legitimacy in Action: Lessons for Theory and Practice’, in M. Reisig and R. Kane (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing. Oxford: Oxford University Press Braithwaite, V. (2003) ‘Dancing with Tax Authorities: Motivaitonal Postures and Non-Compliant Actions’, in V Braithwaite (ed.) Taxing Democracy. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Brewer, J. (2001) ‘Review Essay: The Paradox of Northern Ireland’, Sociology 35(3), 779-783 Brogden, M. (2001) ‘The Patten Report: A Unitary Solution to a Multi-Dimensional Problem?’, Policing and Society 11, 273-295 Brunson, R. (2007) ‘”Police don’t like black people”: African-American Young Peoples’ Accumulated Police Experiences’, Criminology and Public Policy 5(1), 71- 102 Brunson, R. and Miller, J. (2006) ‘Young Black Men and Urban Policing in the United States’, British Journal of Criminology 46, 613-640 55 Brunson. , and Weitzer, R. (2011) ‘Negotiating Unwelcome Police Encounters: The Intergenerational Transmission of Conduct Norms’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 40(4), 425-456 Byrne, J. et al. (2005) Young People’s Attitudes and Experiences of Policing, Violence and Community Safety in North Belfast. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research) Byrne, J. and Jarman, N. (2011) ‘Ten Years After Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland’, Youth and Society 43(2), 433-452 Byrne, J. and Monaghan, L. (2008) ‘Policing Loyalist and Republican Communities: Understanding Key Issues for Local Communities and the PSNI’. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research Byrne, J. and Topping, J. (2012a) Community Safety: A Decade of Development, Delivery, Challenge and Change in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Belfast Conflict Resolution Consortium Byrne J and Topping J (2012b) ‘Getting to the heart of the matter will require tenacity’ The Belfast Telegraph, 2nd May 2012 Byrne, J. et al. (2013) ‘Community Perspectives on Public Order Policing in Northern Ireland’. Unpublished research report for Police Service of Northern Ireland Committee on the Administration of Justice (2009) ‘Policing with the Community? Patten’s ‘New Beginning’ 10 Years On’ Conference, Belfast, Radisson Hotel Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) (2014) ‘Crime in England and Wales’. London: Home Office Dai, M. et al. (2011) ‘Procedural Justice During Police-citizen Encounters: The Effects of Process-based Policing on Citizen Compliance and Demeanor’, Journal of Criminal Justice 39, 159-168 Department of Justice Northern Ireland (DOJNI) (2014) ‘Perceptions of Policing, Justice and Anti-Social Behaviour: Quarterly Update to September 2013’. Befast: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency Ellison, G. (2000) ‘Reflecting All Shades of Opinion: Public Attitudinal Surveys and the Construction of Police Legitimacy in Northern Ireland’, British Journal of Criminology 40, 88-111 Ellison, G. (2007) ‘A Blueprint for Democratic Policing Anywhere in the World? : Police Reform, Political Transition, and Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland’, Police Quarterly 10(3), 243-269 Ellison, G. (2010) ‘Police- Community Relations in Northern Ireland in the Post- Patten Era: Towards and Ecological Analysis’, in J. Doyle (ed.) Policing the Narrow Ground: Lessons from the Transformation of Policing in Northern Ireland. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy 56 Ellison, G. and Mulcahy, A. (2001) ‘Policing and Social Conflict in Northern Ireland’, Policing and Society 11, 243- 258 Ellison, G., and O’Rawe M. (2010) ‘Security Governance in Transition: The Compartmentalizing, Crowding Out and Corralling of Policing and Security in Northern Ireland’, Theoretical Criminology 14(1), 31-57 Ellison, G. et al. (2012a) ‘Assessing the Determinants of Public Confidence in the Police: A Case Study of a Post-conflict Community in Northern Ireland’, Criminology and Criminal Justice 13(5), 552-576 Ellison, G. et al. (2012b) ‘Responsible Participation, Community Engagement and Policing in Transitional Societies: Lessons from a Local Crime Survey in Northern Ireland’, The Howard Journal 51(5), 488-502 An Garda Siochana (2008) ‘Garda Public Attitudes Survey’, Garda Research Unit Gau, J. and Brunson, R (2010) ‘Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner-City Young Men’s Perceptions of Police Legitimacy’, Justice Quarterly 27(2), 255-279 Gillespie, J. (2013) Speech to the British Irish Parliamentary Assembly, 22nd October 2013 Goldsmith,. A (2005) ‘Police Reform and the Problem of Trust’ Theoretical Criminology 9(4), 443-470 Gormley-Heenan, C. et al (2013) ‘The Berlin walls of Belfast’ British Politics, 8(3), 357-382 Hamill, H (2011) The Hoods: Crime and Punishment in Belfast. Oxford: Princeton University Press Hays, R. (2012) ‘Policing in Northern Ireland: Community Control, Community Policing, and the Search for Legitimacy’, Urban Affairs Review 49(4), 557-592 Hillyard, P. (2006) ‘REVIEWS - Policing Northern Ireland: Conflict, Legitimacy and Reform’ British Journal of Criminology, 46, 50-51 Hillyard, P. and Tomlinson, M. (2000) ‘Patterns of Policing and Policing Patten’ Journal of Law and Society, 27(3), 394-415 Huq, A. et al. (2011) ‘Why Does the Public Cooperate with Law Enforcement? The Influence of the Purposes and Targets of policing’, Psychology, Public Policy and Law 17(3), 419-450 Independent Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland (ICP) (1999) A New Beginning: Policing in Northern Ireland - The Report of the Independent Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland [Patten Report]. Belfast: Independent Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland 57 Jackson, J. and Bradford, B. 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PY - 2014/11/6

Y1 - 2014/11/6

N2 - In January 2014, the Northern Ireland Policing Board (NIPB) commissioned the University of Ulster to conduct research into public confidence in policing to help inform the work of the Board and its oversight of police service delivery. More specifically, the research team were tasked with exploring ‘the key drivers of confidence in Northern Ireland’. To date, the subject of ‘confidence in policing’ within a Northern Ireland context has been relatively under researched, both in academic and policy terms. Thus, the present research is the first empirical research to be produced in the country to empirically assess confidence in policing from a cross section of society – including the key dynamics and drivers that underpin police confidence at a community level.The report begins with a comprehensive review of academic literature, policy documents and contemporary events related to confidence in policing. The research then provides an overview of the methodology used to undertake the research, with the remainder of the report comprised of the findings from the survey. The report concludes with an overview of the central findings along with a series of recommendations.

AB - In January 2014, the Northern Ireland Policing Board (NIPB) commissioned the University of Ulster to conduct research into public confidence in policing to help inform the work of the Board and its oversight of police service delivery. More specifically, the research team were tasked with exploring ‘the key drivers of confidence in Northern Ireland’. To date, the subject of ‘confidence in policing’ within a Northern Ireland context has been relatively under researched, both in academic and policy terms. Thus, the present research is the first empirical research to be produced in the country to empirically assess confidence in policing from a cross section of society – including the key dynamics and drivers that underpin police confidence at a community level.The report begins with a comprehensive review of academic literature, policy documents and contemporary events related to confidence in policing. The research then provides an overview of the methodology used to undertake the research, with the remainder of the report comprised of the findings from the survey. The report concludes with an overview of the central findings along with a series of recommendations.

KW - Policing

KW - northern ireland

KW - confidence

KW - police

KW - psni

M3 - Commissioned report

BT - Northern Ireland Policing Board: Confidence in Policing Research‘The key drivers of public confidence in NI’

ER -