Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a renal dysfunction that can lead to high rates of mortality and morbidity, particularly when coupled with late diagnosis. CKD has become a major health problem due to its challenging detection at early stages when clear symptoms are yet to be presented. Thus, CKD is likely to be identified when the substantive conditions of the disease are manifest. In order to address the development of the disease and provide necessary treatments at the initial stage, the investigation of new biomarkers and metabolites associated with early detection of CKD are needed. Identified metabolites could be used to confirm the presence of the disease, obtain information on its mechanism and facilitate the development of novel pharmaceutical treatments. Such metabolites may be detected from biofluids and tissues using a range of analytical techniques. There are a number of metabolites that have been identified by mass spectrometry at high sensitivities, whilst the detection of metabolites directly from biofluids using NMR could present a more rapid way to expand our understanding of this disease. This review is focused on NMR-based metabolomics associated with CKD in humans and animals.
- Chronic kidney disease