Negative self-evaluation and the genesis of internal threat: Beyond a continuum of suicidal thought and behaviour

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Abstract

Background. Death by suicide is often preceded by attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. These extreme thoughts and behaviour have been considered in terms of a continuum of suicidality. Little known research, however, has considered a suicide continuum that extends beyond these extreme thoughts and behaviours and incorporates a much wider array of phenomena that may vary in severity and may constitute a broader negative self-evaluation (NSE) continuum. Method. Harvesting key indicators of NSE from a British epidemiological survey (N = 8580), the current study used exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modelling to (i) identify the dimensional structure of NSE in the general population and (ii) profile the distribution of the resultant NSE dimensions. Multinomial logistic regression was then used to differentiate between classes using an array of risk variables, psychopathology outcome variables and a suicide attempt indicator. Results. A 4-factor model that reflected graded levels of NSE was identified; (F1) Low selfworth & subordination (F2) depression, (F3) suicidal thoughts, (F4) self harm (SH). Seven classes suggested a clear pattern of NSE severity. Classes characterised by higher levels across the dimensions exhibited greater risk and poorer outcomes. The greatest risk for suicide attempt was associated with a class characterised by engagement in SH behaviour. Conclusions. Low self worth, subordination and depression, while representative of distinct groups in the population are also highly prevalent in those who entertain suicidal thoughts and engage in SH behaviour. The findings promote further investigation into the genesis and evolution of suicidality and internal threat.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1-9
Number of pages9
JournalPsychological Medicine
Early online date3 Dec 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Dec 2018

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Diagnostic Self Evaluation
Ego
Suicide
Statistical Factor Analysis
Depression
Attempted Suicide
Suicidal Ideation
Psychopathology
Population Groups
Logistic Models
Wounds and Injuries
Research
Population

Keywords

  • Factor mixture modeling; negative selfevaluation; self-harm; depression; suicidality continuum; trauma

Cite this

@article{685b2b0bf6864e23b158b4087cffd1ab,
title = "Negative self-evaluation and the genesis of internal threat: Beyond a continuum of suicidal thought and behaviour",
abstract = "Background. Death by suicide is often preceded by attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. These extreme thoughts and behaviour have been considered in terms of a continuum of suicidality. Little known research, however, has considered a suicide continuum that extends beyond these extreme thoughts and behaviours and incorporates a much wider array of phenomena that may vary in severity and may constitute a broader negative self-evaluation (NSE) continuum. Method. Harvesting key indicators of NSE from a British epidemiological survey (N = 8580), the current study used exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modelling to (i) identify the dimensional structure of NSE in the general population and (ii) profile the distribution of the resultant NSE dimensions. Multinomial logistic regression was then used to differentiate between classes using an array of risk variables, psychopathology outcome variables and a suicide attempt indicator. Results. A 4-factor model that reflected graded levels of NSE was identified; (F1) Low selfworth & subordination (F2) depression, (F3) suicidal thoughts, (F4) self harm (SH). Seven classes suggested a clear pattern of NSE severity. Classes characterised by higher levels across the dimensions exhibited greater risk and poorer outcomes. The greatest risk for suicide attempt was associated with a class characterised by engagement in SH behaviour. Conclusions. Low self worth, subordination and depression, while representative of distinct groups in the population are also highly prevalent in those who entertain suicidal thoughts and engage in SH behaviour. The findings promote further investigation into the genesis and evolution of suicidality and internal threat.",
keywords = "Factor mixture modeling; negative selfevaluation; self-harm; depression; suicidality continuum; trauma",
author = "Sarah Butter and M Shevlin and Jamie Murphy",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1017/S0033291718003562",
language = "English",
pages = "1--9",
journal = "Psychological Medicine",
issn = "0033-2917",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",

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T1 - Negative self-evaluation and the genesis of internal threat: Beyond a continuum of suicidal thought and behaviour

AU - Butter, Sarah

AU - Shevlin, M

AU - Murphy, Jamie

PY - 2018/12/3

Y1 - 2018/12/3

N2 - Background. Death by suicide is often preceded by attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. These extreme thoughts and behaviour have been considered in terms of a continuum of suicidality. Little known research, however, has considered a suicide continuum that extends beyond these extreme thoughts and behaviours and incorporates a much wider array of phenomena that may vary in severity and may constitute a broader negative self-evaluation (NSE) continuum. Method. Harvesting key indicators of NSE from a British epidemiological survey (N = 8580), the current study used exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modelling to (i) identify the dimensional structure of NSE in the general population and (ii) profile the distribution of the resultant NSE dimensions. Multinomial logistic regression was then used to differentiate between classes using an array of risk variables, psychopathology outcome variables and a suicide attempt indicator. Results. A 4-factor model that reflected graded levels of NSE was identified; (F1) Low selfworth & subordination (F2) depression, (F3) suicidal thoughts, (F4) self harm (SH). Seven classes suggested a clear pattern of NSE severity. Classes characterised by higher levels across the dimensions exhibited greater risk and poorer outcomes. The greatest risk for suicide attempt was associated with a class characterised by engagement in SH behaviour. Conclusions. Low self worth, subordination and depression, while representative of distinct groups in the population are also highly prevalent in those who entertain suicidal thoughts and engage in SH behaviour. The findings promote further investigation into the genesis and evolution of suicidality and internal threat.

AB - Background. Death by suicide is often preceded by attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. These extreme thoughts and behaviour have been considered in terms of a continuum of suicidality. Little known research, however, has considered a suicide continuum that extends beyond these extreme thoughts and behaviours and incorporates a much wider array of phenomena that may vary in severity and may constitute a broader negative self-evaluation (NSE) continuum. Method. Harvesting key indicators of NSE from a British epidemiological survey (N = 8580), the current study used exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modelling to (i) identify the dimensional structure of NSE in the general population and (ii) profile the distribution of the resultant NSE dimensions. Multinomial logistic regression was then used to differentiate between classes using an array of risk variables, psychopathology outcome variables and a suicide attempt indicator. Results. A 4-factor model that reflected graded levels of NSE was identified; (F1) Low selfworth & subordination (F2) depression, (F3) suicidal thoughts, (F4) self harm (SH). Seven classes suggested a clear pattern of NSE severity. Classes characterised by higher levels across the dimensions exhibited greater risk and poorer outcomes. The greatest risk for suicide attempt was associated with a class characterised by engagement in SH behaviour. Conclusions. Low self worth, subordination and depression, while representative of distinct groups in the population are also highly prevalent in those who entertain suicidal thoughts and engage in SH behaviour. The findings promote further investigation into the genesis and evolution of suicidality and internal threat.

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