National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP Synthesis 463, Pavement Patching Practices - A Synthesis of Highway Practice

RS McDaniel, J Olek, B.J. Magee, A Behnood, R Pollock

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

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Abstract

This report summarizes current practices for patching both concrete and asphalt pavements. The intent is to document the state of the practice for patching relatively small-scale surface defects in concrete and asphalt pavements. Both reactive and planned patching is addressed. The synthesis covers management or administrative issues, materials, methods, equipment, specifications and tests, traffic control, and other aspects of patching operations.The information presented in the report was collected through extensive literature reviewsof U.S. and international sources. A total of 49 of 51 survey responses were received fromU.S. state highway agencies, a 96.1% response rate. Responses were also obtained from20 local agencies across the United States, 36 from national, county, and city agencies, andthree from maintenance contractors. Five responses were received from Canadian agencies (three provincial and two cities).The report will be of special interest to state, local, and international highway agenciesby assisting them to make informed decisions.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages86
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2014

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Concrete pavements
Asphalt pavements
Pavements
Traffic control
Surface defects
Contractors
Specifications

Keywords

  • Pavement patching
  • potholes
  • synthesis
  • best practice

Cite this

@book{75ae431aa5bc433897e3bd472f1a901a,
title = "National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP Synthesis 463, Pavement Patching Practices - A Synthesis of Highway Practice",
abstract = "This report summarizes current practices for patching both concrete and asphalt pavements. The intent is to document the state of the practice for patching relatively small-scale surface defects in concrete and asphalt pavements. Both reactive and planned patching is addressed. The synthesis covers management or administrative issues, materials, methods, equipment, specifications and tests, traffic control, and other aspects of patching operations.The information presented in the report was collected through extensive literature reviewsof U.S. and international sources. A total of 49 of 51 survey responses were received fromU.S. state highway agencies, a 96.1{\%} response rate. Responses were also obtained from20 local agencies across the United States, 36 from national, county, and city agencies, andthree from maintenance contractors. Five responses were received from Canadian agencies (three provincial and two cities).The report will be of special interest to state, local, and international highway agenciesby assisting them to make informed decisions.",
keywords = "Pavement patching, potholes, synthesis, best practice",
author = "RS McDaniel and J Olek and B.J. Magee and A Behnood and R Pollock",
note = "Reference text: 1. Kuo, S.-S., L. Carlo, and C. Kuenzel, Evaluation of Patching Materials and Placement Techniques for Rigid Pavements and Bridge Decks, Final Report, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, 1999. 2. Miller, J.S. and W.Y. Bellinger, Distress Identification Manual for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program, Fourth Revised Edition, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., 2003. 3. Evans, L.D., C.G. Mojab, A.J. Patel, A.R. Romine, K.L. Smith, and T.P. Wilson, Innovative Materials Development and Testing, Volume 1: Project Overview, Report No. SHRP-H-352, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 4. Wilson, T.P. and A.R. Romine, Manual of Practice: Materials and Procedures for the Repair of Potholes in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements, Report No. SHRP-H-348, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 5. Wilson, T.P. and A.R. Romine, Materials and Procedures for Repair of Potholes in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements— Manual of Practice, Report FHWA-RD-99-168, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., 1999. 6. Mojab, C.A., A.J. Patel, and A.R. Romine, Innovative Materials Development and Testing, Volume 5: Partial Depth Spall Repair in Jointed Concrete Pavements, Report No. SHRP-H-356, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 7. Smith, K.L., D.G. Peshkin, E.H. Rmeili, T. Van Dam, K.D. Smith, and M.I. Darter, Innovative Materials and Equipment for Pavement Surface Repairs, Vol. 1: Summary of Material Performance and Experimental Plans, Report No. SHRP-M/UFR-91-504, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1991. 8. Wilson, T.R., “Strategic Highway Research Program Pothole Repair Materials and Procedures,” Transportation Research Record 1392, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 27–32. 9. Wilson, T.P. and A.R. Romine, Innovative Materials Development and Testing, Volume 2: Pothole Repair, Report No. SHRP-H-353, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 10. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), TechBrief, Pothole Repair, Report FHWA-RD-99-202, FHWA, McLean, Va., 1999. 11. Wilson, T.P., K.L. Smith, and A.R. Romine, LTPP Pavement Maintenance Materials: PCC Partial-Depth Spall Repair Experiment, Final Report, Report FHWARD- 99-153, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., 1999. 12. Wilson, T.P., K.L. Smith, and A.R. Romine, Materials and Procedures for Rapid Repair of Partial-Depth Spalls in Concrete Pavements—Manual of Practice, Report FHWA-RD-99-152, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., 1999. 13. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), TechBrief, Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Partial-Depth Spall Repair, Report FHWA-RD-99-177, FHWA, McLean, Va., 1999. 14. Blaha, J.R., Fabrication and Testing of Automated Pothole Patching Machine, Report No. SHRP-H-674, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 15. Anderson, D.A. and H.R. Thomas, “Pothole Repair in Pennsylvania,” Proceedings of Purdue University’s 70th Annual Road School, West Lafayette, Ind., 1984, pp. 28–46. 16. Anderson, D.A., H.R. Thomas, Z. Siddiqui, and D.D. Krivohlavek, More Effective Cold Wet-Weather Patching Materials for Asphalt Pavements, Report FHWARD- 88-001, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 1987. 17. Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, Pothole Repair: A Guide for PaDOT Maintenance Crews, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 1980. 18. Thomas, H.R., “A Procedure for Evaluating the Efficiency of Power-Operated Cutting Tools in Localized Pavement Repair,” Transportation Research Record 1392, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1982, pp. 24–29. 19. Feighan, K.J., E.A. Sharaf, T.D. White, and K.C. Sinha, “Estimation of Service Life and Cost or Routine Maintenance Activities,” Transportation Research Record 1102, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1986, pp. 13–21. 20. Kuennen, T., “The Pothole Patching Playbook: Why Potholes Occur, How to Patch Them, and How to Prevent Them in the First Place, Better Roads, Vol. 74, 2004, pp. 30–41. 21. Peshkin, D.G. and T.E. Hoerner, Pavement Preservation: Practices, Research Plans and Initiatives, Final Report, NCHRP Project 20-07, Task 184, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2005 [Online]. Available: http://maintenance. transportation.org/Documents/NCHRP20-07184Final Report.pdf [accessed Mar. 28, 2013]. 22. Lee, J. and T. Shields, Treatment Guidelines for Pavement Preservation, Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., 2010. 23. Sinha, K.C., M. Saito, and J. Nafakh, “Optimization of Equipment Use in Routine Highway Maintenance,” Transportation Research Record 1148, Transportation 54 Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. 38–47. 24. Saito, M., K.C. Sinha, and E.A. Sharaf, “Analysis of Fuel Consumption in Routine Maintenance of State Highways in Indiana (abridgement),” Transportation Research Record No. 1102, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1986, pp. 22–26. 25. Illinois DOT, press releases [Online]. Available: dot. state.il.us/districtreleases.htm [accessed June 30, 2013]. 26. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Maintenance First, Manual Patching [Online]. Available: ftp.dot.pa.us/ public/PubsForms/Publications/PUB 370E.pdf. 27. Potholepalooza, District of Columbia Department of Transportation [Online]. Available: ddot.dc.gov/potholes/ [accessed May 5, 2013]. 28. District of Columbia Department of Transportation [online]. Available: http://ddot.dc.gov/release/ddot-crewsfill- almost-12000-potholes-during-potholepalooza [accessed June 9, 2014]. 29. The Daily Pothole, a Publication of New York City Department of Transportation [Online]. Available: the dailypothole.tumblr.com [accessed June 15, 2013]. 30. Missourinet [Online]. Available: www.missourinet.com/ 2013/03/19/department-of-transportation-launchesstatewide- pothole-clean-up-effort-audio [accessed Mar. 20, 2013]. 31. Caltrans Division of Maintenance, Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide, Vol. 1—Flexible Pavement Preservation, 2nd ed., California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, 2008. 32. Maher, A., N. Gucunski, W. Yanko, and F. Petsi, Evaluation of Pothole Patching Materials, Report FHWA 2001-02, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J., 2001. 33. Dong, Q., B. Huang, and X. Shu, “Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Winter Season Pavement Patching Materials in Tennessee,” Paper No. 13-4772, Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting Compendium, 2013. 34. Maintenance Manual, Idaho Transportation Department, Boise, 2012. 35. Field Operations Guide, Transportation Cabinet, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Frankfort, 2011. 36. Maintenance Manual, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, 2010. 37. Maintenance Manual, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, 2009. 38. Standard Specifications, “Pothole Repair,” Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, 2004, p. 981. 39. Maintenance Manual, Chapter 3, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, 2005. 40. Johnson, A., Best Practices Handbook on Asphalt Pavement Maintenance, Manual No. 2000-04, University of Minnesota Center for Transportation Studies, Minneapolis, 2000. 41. Rosales-Herrera, V.I., J. Prozzi, and J.A. Prozzi, Mixture Design Manual and Performance-Based Specifications for Cold Patching Mixtures, report submitted to FHWA and TxDOT, Austin, Tex., 2007, 144 pp. 42. Frick, K., Evaluation of New Patching Material for Open- Graded Asphalt Concrete (OGAC) Wearing Courses, Technical Memorandum UCPRC-TM-2005-9, University of California Pavement Research Center, Davis and Berkeley, 2005. 43. Conigliaro, A. and P. Watson, Determining the Best Formulation for a Unique Asphalt Cold Patch Product Made With #3-7 Rigid Plastic Aggregate, report submitted to Chelsea Center for Recycling and Economic Development, Chelsea, Mass., 2000, p. 8. 44. Clyne, T.R., E.N. Johnson, and B.J. Worel, Use of Taconite Aggregates in Pavement Applications, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, 2010, p. 21. 45. Latta, J., “A Magic Mix of Magnetite and Microwaves Offers a Super Year-Round Pothole Fix,” Better Roads, 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.betterroads.com/ hot-holes/?full-article=true [accessed Aug. 9, 2013]. 46. Estakhri, C.K. and J.W. Button, “Test Methods for Evaluation of Cold-Applied Bituminous Patching Mixtures,” Transportation Research Record 1590, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 10–16. 47. Guthrie, W.S. and K. Woffinden, “Improving Patch Joint Bonder Strength,” Public Works, No. 5, 2004, pp. 35–37. 48. Freeman, T.J. and J. Epps, HeatWurx Patching at Two Locations in San Antonio, Texas Transportation Institute, Report No. 5-9043-01-1, Austin, 2012. 49. Uzarowski, L., V. Henderson, M. Henderson, and B. Kiesswetter, “Innovative Infrared Crack Repair Method,” Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2011. 50. Prowell, D.B. and A.G. Franklin, “Evaluation of Cold Mixes for Winter Pothole Repair,” Transportation Research Record 1529, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 76–85. 51. Wei, C. and S. Tighe, “Development of Preventive Maintenance Decision Trees Based on Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: An Ontario Case Study,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1866, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2004, pp. 9–19. 52. Palsat, D.P., H. Soleymani, D.E. Mesher, and P. Campbell, “Developing a Performance-Based Specification for Spray-Patch Crack Treatment—A Case Study in Alberta,” Canadian Technical Asphalt Association, Proceedings, Vol. 53, 2008, pp. 1–28. 53. Smith, K.D., Tech Brief: Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Preservation Treatments, Concrete Pavement Technology Program, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 2005. 54. Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide, Vol. II—Rigid Pavement Preservation, 2nd ed., Caltrans Division of 55 Maintenance, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, 2008. 55. Concrete Manual, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, 2003. 56. Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction, Wyoming Department of Transportation, Cheyenne, 2010. 57. Rangaraju Rao, P. and R. Pattnaik Ranjan, Evaluation of Rapid Set Patching Materials for PCC Applications, Report FHWA-SC-07-07, Clemson University, Clemson, S.C., 2008. 58. National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP), Two-Year Report of Field Performance and Laboratory Evaluations of Rapid Setting Patching Materials for Portland Cement Concrete—June 2007 Product Submissions, NTPEP Report 9008.2, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 2009. 59. Kuo, S.-S., J.M. Armaghani, and D. Scherling, Accelerated Pavement Performance Testing of Ultra-Thin Fiber Reinforced Concrete Overlay, Recycled Concrete Aggregate, and Patching Materials, University of Central Florida, Orlando, 2000. 60. Hanson, T.D., Blended Cement Patching Research, Final Report for MLR-04-01, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames, 2005. 61. Bischoff, D. and A. Toepel, Dowel Bar Retrofit: STH 13 Construction and One-Year Performance Report, Report No. WI-07-02, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, 2002. 62. Bischoff, D. and A. Toepel, Laboratory Testing of Portland Cement Concrete Patch Material, Modified to Reduce or Eliminate Shrinkage, Report No. WI-01-04, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, 2004. 63. Priddy, L.P., S.R. Jersey and R.B. Freeman, “Determining Rapid-Setting Material Suitability for Expedient Pavement Repairs: Full-Scale Traffic Tests and Laboratory Testing Protocol,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2113, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009, pp. 140–148. 64. Soltesz, S., M. Dunning, M. Joerger, and J. Lundy, Concrete Patching Guide, Report No. SPR #334, Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, 2003. 65. Partial-Depth Repair of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements, Construction Inspection Checklist #09, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 2005 [Online]. Available: www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_ details.cfm?id=350 [accessed May 24, 2013]. 66. Partial-Depth Repairs, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 2011 [Online]. Available: www. fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/concrete/repair.cfm [accessed May 24, 2013]. 67. Frentress, D.P. and D.S. Harrington, Guide for Partial- Depth Repair of Concrete Pavements, Institute for Transportation, Iowa State University, Ames, 2012. 68. Hammons, M. and A. Saeed, “Expedient Spall Repair Methods and Equipment for Airfield Pavements,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2155, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2010, pp. 63–70. 69. Yuan, Z. and C.P. Liu, “Analysis on Upper Limit of Patching Area of Corner Breaks,” Geotechnical Special Publication No. 223, Road Materials and New Innovations in Pavement Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Va., 2011, pp. 144–150. 70. Browning, G., Evaluation of RESURF CR, Study No. 67-24, Mississippi Department of Transportation and FHWA, Jackson, Miss., 1999. 71. Chen, D., J. Li, and J. Xie, “Performance of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Patching Binder for Minimizing Reflective Cracking,” Geotechnical Special Publication No. 212, Pavements and Materials, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Va., 2011. 72. Chen Hao, D., C.M. Won, Q. Zhang, and T. Scullion, “Field Evaluations of the Patch Materials for Partial- Depth Repairs,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, 2009, pp. 518–522. 73. Markey, S.M., S.I. Ilee, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, D.G. Zollinger, D.P. Whitney and D.W. Fowler, Investigation of Spall Repair Materials for Concrete Pavement, Report No. 0-5110-1, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, 2006. 74. Lugg, M.D., “The Pothole Review—Prevention and a Better Cure,” Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting Compendium, Paper No. 13-3593, 2013. 75. Pollock, R., A Review of State-of-the-Art Practices for Patching Asphalt and Concrete Pavements, Project Dissertation for the Degree of BEng, Queen’s University Belfast, 2013. 76. Well-Maintained Highway: Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management, U.K. Department of Transport, London, 2011. 77. Maintenance Quality Assurance Manual, Maintenance Division, Indiana Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, 2011. 78. Work Zone Traffic Control Guidelines, Work Zone Safety Section, Indiana Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, 2013. 79. 2012 Stormwater Report, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, 2012. 80. Guidelines for Addressing Potholes Repairs, Marion County Public Works, Salem, Ore., 2008. 81. Orr, D.P., Pavement Maintenance, Cornell Local Roads Program, Ithaca, N.Y., 2006.",
year = "2014",
month = "8",
day = "1",
language = "English",

}

National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP Synthesis 463, Pavement Patching Practices - A Synthesis of Highway Practice. / McDaniel, RS; Olek, J; Magee, B.J.; Behnood, A; Pollock, R.

2014. 86 p.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

TY - BOOK

T1 - National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP Synthesis 463, Pavement Patching Practices - A Synthesis of Highway Practice

AU - McDaniel, RS

AU - Olek, J

AU - Magee, B.J.

AU - Behnood, A

AU - Pollock, R

N1 - Reference text: 1. Kuo, S.-S., L. Carlo, and C. Kuenzel, Evaluation of Patching Materials and Placement Techniques for Rigid Pavements and Bridge Decks, Final Report, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, 1999. 2. Miller, J.S. and W.Y. Bellinger, Distress Identification Manual for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program, Fourth Revised Edition, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., 2003. 3. Evans, L.D., C.G. Mojab, A.J. Patel, A.R. Romine, K.L. Smith, and T.P. Wilson, Innovative Materials Development and Testing, Volume 1: Project Overview, Report No. SHRP-H-352, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 4. Wilson, T.P. and A.R. Romine, Manual of Practice: Materials and Procedures for the Repair of Potholes in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements, Report No. SHRP-H-348, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 5. Wilson, T.P. and A.R. Romine, Materials and Procedures for Repair of Potholes in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements— Manual of Practice, Report FHWA-RD-99-168, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., 1999. 6. Mojab, C.A., A.J. Patel, and A.R. Romine, Innovative Materials Development and Testing, Volume 5: Partial Depth Spall Repair in Jointed Concrete Pavements, Report No. SHRP-H-356, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 7. Smith, K.L., D.G. Peshkin, E.H. Rmeili, T. Van Dam, K.D. Smith, and M.I. Darter, Innovative Materials and Equipment for Pavement Surface Repairs, Vol. 1: Summary of Material Performance and Experimental Plans, Report No. SHRP-M/UFR-91-504, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1991. 8. Wilson, T.R., “Strategic Highway Research Program Pothole Repair Materials and Procedures,” Transportation Research Record 1392, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 27–32. 9. Wilson, T.P. and A.R. Romine, Innovative Materials Development and Testing, Volume 2: Pothole Repair, Report No. SHRP-H-353, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 10. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), TechBrief, Pothole Repair, Report FHWA-RD-99-202, FHWA, McLean, Va., 1999. 11. Wilson, T.P., K.L. Smith, and A.R. Romine, LTPP Pavement Maintenance Materials: PCC Partial-Depth Spall Repair Experiment, Final Report, Report FHWARD- 99-153, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., 1999. 12. Wilson, T.P., K.L. Smith, and A.R. Romine, Materials and Procedures for Rapid Repair of Partial-Depth Spalls in Concrete Pavements—Manual of Practice, Report FHWA-RD-99-152, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., 1999. 13. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), TechBrief, Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Partial-Depth Spall Repair, Report FHWA-RD-99-177, FHWA, McLean, Va., 1999. 14. Blaha, J.R., Fabrication and Testing of Automated Pothole Patching Machine, Report No. SHRP-H-674, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993. 15. Anderson, D.A. and H.R. Thomas, “Pothole Repair in Pennsylvania,” Proceedings of Purdue University’s 70th Annual Road School, West Lafayette, Ind., 1984, pp. 28–46. 16. Anderson, D.A., H.R. Thomas, Z. Siddiqui, and D.D. Krivohlavek, More Effective Cold Wet-Weather Patching Materials for Asphalt Pavements, Report FHWARD- 88-001, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 1987. 17. Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, Pothole Repair: A Guide for PaDOT Maintenance Crews, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 1980. 18. Thomas, H.R., “A Procedure for Evaluating the Efficiency of Power-Operated Cutting Tools in Localized Pavement Repair,” Transportation Research Record 1392, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1982, pp. 24–29. 19. Feighan, K.J., E.A. Sharaf, T.D. White, and K.C. Sinha, “Estimation of Service Life and Cost or Routine Maintenance Activities,” Transportation Research Record 1102, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1986, pp. 13–21. 20. Kuennen, T., “The Pothole Patching Playbook: Why Potholes Occur, How to Patch Them, and How to Prevent Them in the First Place, Better Roads, Vol. 74, 2004, pp. 30–41. 21. Peshkin, D.G. and T.E. Hoerner, Pavement Preservation: Practices, Research Plans and Initiatives, Final Report, NCHRP Project 20-07, Task 184, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2005 [Online]. Available: http://maintenance. transportation.org/Documents/NCHRP20-07184Final Report.pdf [accessed Mar. 28, 2013]. 22. Lee, J. and T. Shields, Treatment Guidelines for Pavement Preservation, Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., 2010. 23. Sinha, K.C., M. Saito, and J. Nafakh, “Optimization of Equipment Use in Routine Highway Maintenance,” Transportation Research Record 1148, Transportation 54 Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1987, pp. 38–47. 24. Saito, M., K.C. Sinha, and E.A. Sharaf, “Analysis of Fuel Consumption in Routine Maintenance of State Highways in Indiana (abridgement),” Transportation Research Record No. 1102, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1986, pp. 22–26. 25. Illinois DOT, press releases [Online]. Available: dot. state.il.us/districtreleases.htm [accessed June 30, 2013]. 26. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Maintenance First, Manual Patching [Online]. Available: ftp.dot.pa.us/ public/PubsForms/Publications/PUB 370E.pdf. 27. Potholepalooza, District of Columbia Department of Transportation [Online]. Available: ddot.dc.gov/potholes/ [accessed May 5, 2013]. 28. District of Columbia Department of Transportation [online]. Available: http://ddot.dc.gov/release/ddot-crewsfill- almost-12000-potholes-during-potholepalooza [accessed June 9, 2014]. 29. The Daily Pothole, a Publication of New York City Department of Transportation [Online]. Available: the dailypothole.tumblr.com [accessed June 15, 2013]. 30. Missourinet [Online]. Available: www.missourinet.com/ 2013/03/19/department-of-transportation-launchesstatewide- pothole-clean-up-effort-audio [accessed Mar. 20, 2013]. 31. Caltrans Division of Maintenance, Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide, Vol. 1—Flexible Pavement Preservation, 2nd ed., California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, 2008. 32. Maher, A., N. Gucunski, W. Yanko, and F. Petsi, Evaluation of Pothole Patching Materials, Report FHWA 2001-02, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J., 2001. 33. Dong, Q., B. Huang, and X. Shu, “Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Winter Season Pavement Patching Materials in Tennessee,” Paper No. 13-4772, Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting Compendium, 2013. 34. Maintenance Manual, Idaho Transportation Department, Boise, 2012. 35. Field Operations Guide, Transportation Cabinet, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Frankfort, 2011. 36. Maintenance Manual, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, 2010. 37. Maintenance Manual, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, 2009. 38. Standard Specifications, “Pothole Repair,” Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, 2004, p. 981. 39. Maintenance Manual, Chapter 3, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, 2005. 40. Johnson, A., Best Practices Handbook on Asphalt Pavement Maintenance, Manual No. 2000-04, University of Minnesota Center for Transportation Studies, Minneapolis, 2000. 41. Rosales-Herrera, V.I., J. Prozzi, and J.A. Prozzi, Mixture Design Manual and Performance-Based Specifications for Cold Patching Mixtures, report submitted to FHWA and TxDOT, Austin, Tex., 2007, 144 pp. 42. Frick, K., Evaluation of New Patching Material for Open- Graded Asphalt Concrete (OGAC) Wearing Courses, Technical Memorandum UCPRC-TM-2005-9, University of California Pavement Research Center, Davis and Berkeley, 2005. 43. Conigliaro, A. and P. Watson, Determining the Best Formulation for a Unique Asphalt Cold Patch Product Made With #3-7 Rigid Plastic Aggregate, report submitted to Chelsea Center for Recycling and Economic Development, Chelsea, Mass., 2000, p. 8. 44. Clyne, T.R., E.N. Johnson, and B.J. Worel, Use of Taconite Aggregates in Pavement Applications, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, 2010, p. 21. 45. Latta, J., “A Magic Mix of Magnetite and Microwaves Offers a Super Year-Round Pothole Fix,” Better Roads, 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.betterroads.com/ hot-holes/?full-article=true [accessed Aug. 9, 2013]. 46. Estakhri, C.K. and J.W. Button, “Test Methods for Evaluation of Cold-Applied Bituminous Patching Mixtures,” Transportation Research Record 1590, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 10–16. 47. Guthrie, W.S. and K. Woffinden, “Improving Patch Joint Bonder Strength,” Public Works, No. 5, 2004, pp. 35–37. 48. Freeman, T.J. and J. Epps, HeatWurx Patching at Two Locations in San Antonio, Texas Transportation Institute, Report No. 5-9043-01-1, Austin, 2012. 49. Uzarowski, L., V. Henderson, M. Henderson, and B. Kiesswetter, “Innovative Infrared Crack Repair Method,” Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2011. 50. Prowell, D.B. and A.G. Franklin, “Evaluation of Cold Mixes for Winter Pothole Repair,” Transportation Research Record 1529, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 76–85. 51. Wei, C. and S. Tighe, “Development of Preventive Maintenance Decision Trees Based on Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: An Ontario Case Study,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1866, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2004, pp. 9–19. 52. Palsat, D.P., H. Soleymani, D.E. Mesher, and P. Campbell, “Developing a Performance-Based Specification for Spray-Patch Crack Treatment—A Case Study in Alberta,” Canadian Technical Asphalt Association, Proceedings, Vol. 53, 2008, pp. 1–28. 53. Smith, K.D., Tech Brief: Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Preservation Treatments, Concrete Pavement Technology Program, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 2005. 54. Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide, Vol. II—Rigid Pavement Preservation, 2nd ed., Caltrans Division of 55 Maintenance, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, 2008. 55. Concrete Manual, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, 2003. 56. Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction, Wyoming Department of Transportation, Cheyenne, 2010. 57. Rangaraju Rao, P. and R. Pattnaik Ranjan, Evaluation of Rapid Set Patching Materials for PCC Applications, Report FHWA-SC-07-07, Clemson University, Clemson, S.C., 2008. 58. National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP), Two-Year Report of Field Performance and Laboratory Evaluations of Rapid Setting Patching Materials for Portland Cement Concrete—June 2007 Product Submissions, NTPEP Report 9008.2, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 2009. 59. Kuo, S.-S., J.M. Armaghani, and D. 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PY - 2014/8/1

Y1 - 2014/8/1

N2 - This report summarizes current practices for patching both concrete and asphalt pavements. The intent is to document the state of the practice for patching relatively small-scale surface defects in concrete and asphalt pavements. Both reactive and planned patching is addressed. The synthesis covers management or administrative issues, materials, methods, equipment, specifications and tests, traffic control, and other aspects of patching operations.The information presented in the report was collected through extensive literature reviewsof U.S. and international sources. A total of 49 of 51 survey responses were received fromU.S. state highway agencies, a 96.1% response rate. Responses were also obtained from20 local agencies across the United States, 36 from national, county, and city agencies, andthree from maintenance contractors. Five responses were received from Canadian agencies (three provincial and two cities).The report will be of special interest to state, local, and international highway agenciesby assisting them to make informed decisions.

AB - This report summarizes current practices for patching both concrete and asphalt pavements. The intent is to document the state of the practice for patching relatively small-scale surface defects in concrete and asphalt pavements. Both reactive and planned patching is addressed. The synthesis covers management or administrative issues, materials, methods, equipment, specifications and tests, traffic control, and other aspects of patching operations.The information presented in the report was collected through extensive literature reviewsof U.S. and international sources. A total of 49 of 51 survey responses were received fromU.S. state highway agencies, a 96.1% response rate. Responses were also obtained from20 local agencies across the United States, 36 from national, county, and city agencies, andthree from maintenance contractors. Five responses were received from Canadian agencies (three provincial and two cities).The report will be of special interest to state, local, and international highway agenciesby assisting them to make informed decisions.

KW - Pavement patching

KW - potholes

KW - synthesis

KW - best practice

M3 - Commissioned report

BT - National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP Synthesis 463, Pavement Patching Practices - A Synthesis of Highway Practice

ER -